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How to Use Quotation Marks
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A rundown of the general rules of when and where to use quotation marks.
Using Quotation Marks
The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language (either spoken or written) that has come from somebody else. The quotation mark is also used to designate speech acts in fiction and sometimes poetry. Since you will most often use them when working with outside sources, successful use of quotation marks is a practical defense against accidental plagiarism and an excellent practice in academic honesty. The following rules of quotation mark use are the standard in the United States, although it may be of interest that usage rules for this punctuation do vary in other countries.
The following covers the basic use of quotation marks. For details and exceptions consult the separate sections of this guide.
Direct quotations involve incorporating another person's exact words into your own writing.
- Quotation marks always come in pairs. Do not open a quotation and fail to close it at the end of the quoted material.
Mr. Johnson, who was working in his field that morning, said, "The alien spaceship appeared right before my own two eyes."
Although Mr. Johnson has seen odd happenings on the farm, he stated that the spaceship "certainly takes the cake" when it comes to unexplainable activity.
"I didn't see an actual alien being," Mr. Johnson said, "but I sure wish I had."
When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text. However, also insert the term sic in italics directly after the mistake, and enclose it in brackets. Sic is from the Latin, and translates to "thus," "so," or "just as that." The word tells the reader that your quote is an exact reproduction of what you found, and the error is not your own.
Mr. Johnson says of the experience, "It's made me reconsider the existence of extraterestials [ sic ]."
- Quotations are most effective if you use them sparingly and keep them relatively short. Too many quotations in a research paper will get you accused of not producing original thought or material (they may also bore a reader who wants to know primarily what YOU have to say on the subject).
Indirect quotations are not exact wordings but rather rephrasings or summaries of another person's words. In this case, it is not necessary to use quotation marks. However, indirect quotations still require proper citations, and you will be committing plagiarism if you fail to do so.
Many writers struggle with when to use direct quotations versus indirect quotations. Use the following tips to guide you in your choice.
Use direct quotations when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. Do not rob such language of its power by altering it.
The above should never stand in for:
Use an indirect quotation (or paraphrase) when you merely need to summarize key incidents or details of the text.
Use direct quotations when the author you are quoting has coined a term unique to her or his research and relevant within your own paper.
When to use direct quotes versus indirect quotes is ultimately a choice you'll learn a feeling for with experience. However, always try to have a sense for why you've chosen your quote. In other words, never put quotes in your paper simply because your teacher says, "You must use quotes."
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APA 7th Edition
Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL.
- APA Style Introduction APA 7th
- APA Overview and Workshop APA 7th
- General Formatting APA 7th
- In-Text Citation: Authors APA 7th
- Foot Notes and Appendices APA 7th
- Changes in the 7th Edition APA 7th
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Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
MLA Format: Everything You Need to Know and More
Filled with a wide variety of examples and visuals, our Citation Machine® MLA guide will help you master the citation process. Learn how to cite websites, books, journal articles, magazines, newspapers, films, social media, and more!
MLA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs
Comprehensive Guide to APA Format
Our Citation Machine® APA guide is a one-stop shop for learning how to cite in APA format. Read up on what APA is, or use our citing tools and APA examples to create citations for websites, books, journals, and more!
APA Citation Generator | Website | Books | Journal Articles | YouTube | Images | Movies | Interview | PDFs
Everything You Need to Know About Chicago Style
Creating citations in Chicago style has never been easier thanks to our extensive Citation Machine® Chicago style guide and tools. Learn about footnotes, endnotes, and everything in between, or easily create citations for websites, books, journal articles, and more!
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How to Cite Quotes in APA
Last Updated: February 4, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. There are 16 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 62,477 times.
Whether you have a big paper due for class or are about to publish a study, making sure your quotes are properly cited is important. APA style is the standard citation format for most social sciences, medical sciences, and public health papers. A quote in APA style includes a signal phrase before the quote and a citation in parentheses after the quote. A basic citation is easy to master, but there are some slight variations for use in special circumstances. Just remember, if your quote is over 40 words long, some special formatting is required.
Writing a Signal Phrase
- Include both the author and the year in the text. The page number will be in parentheses.
- Include only the author's name in the text. The year and page number will be in parentheses.
- Do not write the author's name or year of publication in the text. The name, year, and page number will be included in parentheses at the end.
- Smith’s 2002 study found that “owning a pet absolutely reduced stress” (p. 48).
- Smith (2002) found that “owning a pet absolutely reduced stress” (p. 48).
- One study found that “owning a pet absolutely reduced stress” (Smith, 2002, p. 48).
Forming a Parenthetical Citation
- Smith (2008) found that “owning a pet absolutely reduced stress” (p. 48).
- Smith (2008) found that “owning a pet absolutely reduced stress.” (p. 48)
- If there is only one author, write their last name followed by a comma. For example: (Smith, 2008, p. 101).
- If there are 2 authors, write both last names separated by a “&.” Follow the second name with a comma. For example: (Smith & Jones, 2008, p. 101).
- If there are 3-5 authors, cite all names the first time you use the citation. Then use the first author’s last name and “et. al” in following citations. The first citation might look like (Smith, Jones, & Wu, 2008, p. 101). The following citations might look like (Smith et. al 2008, p. 103).
- If there are more than 6 authors, use the first author’s last name and follow it with “et. al”. For example: (Smith et. al 2008, p. 101).
- If you mentioned the author’s name in a signal phrase, follow it immediately with the year in parentheses. You might write: “Jenkins (1990) stated that…”
- If you did not mention the author’s name in a signal phrase, include the year after the author’s name in the parentheses. There should be a comma after the year. This might look like: (Jenkins, 1990, p. 1).
- You must always include the page or paragraph number in the parentheses at the end. You cannot state it in the signal phrase at the beginning.
- The page number always comes last. Write “p.” before the page number.” If there is more than one page, use “pp.” For example: (Wu, 2002, pp. 101-110).
- If you are using the paragraph number, write “para.” before the number. For example: (Wu, 2010, para. 3).
- Author’s last name and first initials
- Title of article
- Title of journal or book
- Year of publication
- Page range of cited article or chapter
- URL (if it is a website) or DOI number (if it is a peer-reviewed journal article)
Formatting a Long Quote
- When discussing the effect of pet ownership on humans, Smith asserts:
- The American Red Cross uses their annual report to call for more donations. In 2016, they said:
- Keep the spacing the same as the rest of the essay. If the rest of the essay is double-spaced, your quote should be double-spaced.
- APA papers typically have margins of 1 inch (2.5 cm). This means that your block quote will be indented a total of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) from the edge of the page.
- If the signal phrase includes the author’s name and year of publication, you only need to cite the page number at the end of the quote.
- If the signal phrase does not include this information, you must cite it at all in the parenthetical citation.
Learning Special Rules
- The American Red Cross (2016) estimates that it responds to 66,000 disasters per year, “including single-family or apartment home fires, severe weather, floods and wildfires” (p. 2).
- In 2016, the American Red Cross estimated that it responds to 66,000 disasters per year, “including single-family or apartment home fires, severe weather, floods and wildfires” (p. 2).
- One organization estimated that it responds to 66,000 disasters per year, “including single-family or apartment home fires, severe weather, floods and wildfires” (American Red Cross, 2016, p. 2).
- Huntington’s disease is a “neurological disorder that causes uncontrolled or jerking movements, difficulties with cognition, and emotional issues” (“Huntington’s Disease,” 2011, para. 1).
- (J. Smith, 2002, p. 27)
- (K. Smith, 1995, p. 205)
- K. Smith (1995) states that “the global economy will only continue to grow” (p. 205).
- William Shakespeare once stated that “we know what we are, but know not what we may be” (as cited in Rodriguez, 2005, p. 6).
- Footnotes are not used in APA style to cite quotes. You should only use them to add interesting additional content or to acknowledge the copyright of a particular item. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://butlercc.libguides.com/c.php?g=220263&p=1458165
- ↑ https://libguides.asu.edu/c.php?g=263988&p=1765718
- ↑ https://www.antioch.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/APA-Signal-Phrases-for-Quotes-and-Paraphrases.pdf
- ↑ https://www.unr.edu/writing-speaking-center/student-resources/writing-speaking-resources/apa-7-in-text-citations
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_basic_rules.html
- ↑ http://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide/intext
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/quotations
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_author_authors.html
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/same-year-author
- ↑ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
About This Article
To cite quotes in APA, include the author and publication year in a signal phrase before the quote, such as, “As Nichols (2003) mentions:” Then, include the page number in parentheses after the quotation, but before the period. If you don’t want to include the author or year in a signal phrase, include that information in the parentheses after the quote, separating them with a comma. For example, write, “The study showed cats are more mischievous (Smith, 2008, p. 101).” For tips from our English co-author on how to format long quotes in APA, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Government Publication
- General Style Guidelines
- One Author or Editor
- Two Authors or Editors
- Three to Five Authors or Editors
- Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
- Article in a Reference Book
- Edition other than the First
- Journal Article with One Author
- Journal Article with 2 Authors
- Journal Article with 3-7 Authors
- Journal Article 7 or more Authors
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Basic Web Page
- Web page from a University site
- Web Page with No Author
- Entry in a Reference Work
- Government Document
- Film and Television
- Youtube Video
- Audio Podcast
- Electronic Image
- Secondary Sources
- Citation Support
- Avoiding Plagiarism
- Formatting Your Paper
About Citing Books
For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.
The following format will be used:
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words. For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue .
In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.
References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.
Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
APA Citation Style does not have a separate category for government publications. According to APA, government documents can be considered Books, Technical/Research Reports or Brochures.
- Treat a government document as a book, report, or brochure.
- If a person is named on the title page, use her or him as author.
- If no person is named, use the government agency, department, or branch as a group author.
- Give the name of the group author exactly as it appears on the title page. If the branch or agency is not well known, include its higher department first.
- If the group author is also the publisher, just use the word Author after the location.
- If there is a series or report number, include it after the title.
- The manual refers to the GPO (U.S. Gov. Printing Office). Canadian equivalents may be: Queen’s Printer, Ministry of Supply and Services, Canadian Government Publishing, etc.
In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
(Author Surname OR Name of Government Organization, Year)
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
(Author Surname OR Name of Government Organization, Year, page number)
Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Government Name. Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). Publisher.
(Gilmore et al., 1999)
(Gilmore et al., 1999, p. 5)
Gilmore, J., Woollam, P., Campbell, T., McLean, B., Roch, J., & Stephens, T. (1999). Statistical report on the health of Canadians: Prepared by the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health . Health Canada, Statistics Canada, Canadian Institute for Health Information.
(Edwards, et al., 1997)
(Edwards, et al., 1997, p. 2)
Edwards, N., Sims-Jones, N., Hotz, S., & Cushman, R. (1997). Development and testing components of a multifaceted intervention program to reduce the incidence of smoking relapse during pregnancy and post-partum of both women and their partners . Report prepared for Health Canada at the Community Health Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Canada.
(Ontario Ministry of Health, 1994)
(Ontario Ministry of Health, 1994, p. 7)
Ontario Ministry of Health. (1994). Selected findings from the mental health supplement of the Ontario Health Survey . Queen's Printer for Ontario.
(U. S. Food and Drug Administration, 2004)
(U. S. Food and Drug Administration, 2004, p. 8)
U. S. Food and Drug Administration/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (2004). Worsening depression and suicidality in patients being treated with antidepressant medications: FDA public health advisory . Author.
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Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers
To directly quote from written material that does not contain page numbers (e.g., webpages and websites, some ebooks), provide readers with another way of locating the quoted passage. Any of the following approaches is acceptable; use the approach that will best help readers find the quotation.
- Provide a heading or section name. It is okay to abbreviate a long or unwieldy heading or section name.
For people with osteoarthritis, “painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage” (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section).
This guidance has been expanded from the 6th edition.
- Provide a paragraph number (count the paragraphs manually if they are not numbered).
People planning for retirement need more than just money—they also “need to stockpile their emotional reserves” to ensure adequate support from family and friends (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).
- Provide a heading or section name in combination with a paragraph number.
Music and language are intertwined in the brain such that “people who are better at rhythmic memory skills tend to excel at language skills as well” (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).
Do not include Kindle location numbers with in-text citations. Instead, provide the page number (which is available in many Kindle books, especially those based on print editions) or use the methods described on this page to create a page number alternative.
Note that the name of the section or other part of the work will not necessarily appear in the reference list entry for the work. For example, if you cite a particular section of a webpage or website in the text, the reference list entry should be for the page you used, not for only that section of the page.
To directly quote from an audiovisual work (e.g., audiobook, YouTube video, TED Talk, TV show), provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation in place of a page number.
People make “sweeping inferences and judgments from body language” (Cuddy, 2012, 2:12).
Works with canonically numbered sections
To directly quote from material with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious or classical works), use the name of the book, chapter, verse, line, and/or canto instead of a page number.
The person vowed to “set me as a seal upon thine heart” ( King James Bible , 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6).
For plays, cite the act, scene, and line(s). In the following example, “1.3.36–37” refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 36 and 37.
In Much Ado About Nothing , Don John said, “In the meantime / let me be that I am and seek not to alter me” (Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36–37).
From the APA Style blog
APA Style webinar on citing works in text
Attend the webinar, “Citing Works in Text Using Seventh Edition APA Style,” on July 14, 2020, to learn the keys to accurately and consistently citing sources in APA Style.
Penn State University Libraries
Apa quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Citing Business Reports
- Other Formats
- APA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.
Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.
For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Web page with author:
Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).
Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html
Web page with organizational author:
More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).
World Health Organization. (2018, March 22). Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Web page with no date:
Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by Multiple Authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three or more authors: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
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- Citation Styles
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Online Sources for APA Style, 7th Edition
Who should use apa citation style, publication manual of the apa.
- In-Text Citations -Basics
- Reference List - Basics
- Examples of APA Style - Basics
- In-Text Citations - Basics
- Works Cited - Basics
- Examples of MLA Style - Basics
- Examples of Chicago Style -Basics
- Examples of Turabian Style - Reference List - Basics
- Examples of Turabian Style - Bibliographic - Basics
- More Citation Styles
- Academic Integrity & Plagiarism
- ASU Graduate Education
Many of the APA style guidelines and a great number of the most commonly needed examples can be found at the official APA website :
- APA Style and Grammar Guidelines
- Reference Examples
- APA Handouts and Guides
Additional APA Resources:
- APA Citation Style
Tutorial developed by the ASU Library for learning about APA Style.
- APA Formatting and Style Guide
OWL - the Purdue (University) Online Writing Lab.
- APA Style Blog
Blog offers opportunities to ask citation style questions and get help from the APA community especially when the answer cannot be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Please note: these o nline sources are helpful in resolving citation style questions, however, they are not the official APA Style guide but rather an interpretation of the citation style and may be prone to inaccuracies. Always consult the official style manual first for the most accurate information.
American Psychological Association Style or APA Style is generally used by disciplines within the Social Sciences .
Disciplines Using APA Style Include But Are Not Limited to:
- Criminology and Criminal Justice
- Political Science
- Social Work
Citation styles change over time; the advent of the Internet and the increasing number at material types [e.g. web pages, e-journals etc.) have contributed to some of these changes. When using a specific citation style be sure to use a resource such as the style manual or website that reflects the current edition.
Print copies of the most current edition are available in the following ASU Library locations:
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BHS_CITATION GUIDE: APA - How to Do Parenthetical (In-text) Citations
- APA Style (Manuscript) Guide
- APA - How to Do Parenthetical (In-text) Citations
- APA - How to Make Source Entries for a Reference Page
- APA - How to Write an Annotated Bibliography
- Google Drive Help
- MLA Formatting Parenthetical Citations
- MLA Works Cited Page
- Citation Practice for MLA
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) from Purdue University is a great web-based source of information about how to cite information in academic projects. This page has abbreviated information from OWL--for more detailed information or more obscure cases, go to the OWL website itself. (Use the menus on the left side of your screen to choose a topic you want to learn about (try looking at the topic "APA In-text Citations: The Basics" and "APA Reference Page")
- Purdue OWL APA Guide
How to Cite Short Quotations
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
From Purdue OWL's APA formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
How to Cite Long Quotations
Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199).
from Purdue OWL's: APA Formating guide https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
How to Cite a Summary or Paraphrase
Summary or paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
From Purdue OWL's APA formatting : https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/
Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
Electronic Sources DO NOT have page #s!
Sources Without Page Numbers
When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para. 5). If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite.
Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.
From Purdue OWL's APA formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
Citing 1 or 2 authors
A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
Citing 3 -5 Authors
A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
Author is an Organization
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
Citing Electronic Sources
If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.
Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").
These elements appear below the visual display. For the figure number, type Figure X . Then type the title of the figure
For FULL details, click here: APA Image Directions
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Before You Go
Owl Purdue Apa Style How To Quotes Inside An Article?
30 Second Answer
Table of Contents
How do you mention a quote in an article?
In order to mention a quote in an article, the author’s name and the page number the quote appears on must be given.
When writing an article, it is important to include quotes from sources to support your claims. In order to properly cite a quote, you must include the author’s name and the page number the quote appears on. For example: “Here is a direct quotation” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, you can use the first or second words from the title instead.
It is also important to provide context for your quotes. Explain why you are including the quote and how it supports your argument. For example:
Smith argues that “the best way to improve writing skills is to practice regularly” (8). This is relevant to my discussion because it demonstrates that practice is essential for improving one’s writing abilities.
Including quotes in your article can help to support your claims and add credibility to your argument. However, it is important to make sure that you properly cite your sources and provide context for your quotes.
How do you quote an author quoted in an article?
You would use an in-text citation with the author’s last name and the date the quote was published in the article.
Citing a quote using APA Style:
If the quote is on a single webpage, you can use “p.”; if it covers a range of pages, “pp” will be used. An APA In-text Citation may include parenthetical, narrative, or both.
When using APA Style to cite an author quoted in an article, you will need to use “p.” if the quote is on a single webpage, and “pp.” if the quote covers a range of pages. You can also include parenthetical, narrative, or both in your APA In-text Citation.
Context with examples:
For example, let’s say you want to cite a quote from John Smith that you found on page five of an article on a website. The in-text citation would look like this: (Smith, p. 5). If the quote spans multiple pages, you would instead use “pp.,” like this: (Smith, pp. 5-7).
If you want to include a parenthetical citation as well as a narrative one, it might look something like this: According to Smith (p. 5), “The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog.”
– When using APA Style to cite an author quoted in an article, you will need to use “p.” if the quote is on a single webpage and “pp.” if the quote covers multiple pages. – You can also include parenthetical, narrative, or both in your APA In-text Citation. – For example, let’s say you want to cite a quote from John Smith that you found on page five of an article on a website. The in-text citation would look like this: (Smith, p. 5). – If the quote spans multiple pages, you would instead use “pp.,” like this: (Smith, pp. 5-7).
How do you mention a quote?
To introduce a quote, you can start with a full sentence, and then add the quoted material after a colon.
It is generally considered best practice to introduce a quote with a full sentence followed by a colon. For example, you might say: “John Doe has argued that ‘this is the best way to do it.'” You could also start a sentence with your own words and then add the quoted words. For example: “This is the best way to do it, according to John Doe.”
If you are quoting critics or researchers, it is often helpful to use an introductory phrase that names the source. For example, you might say: “According to research by Jane Doe, ‘this is the best way to do it.'”
Here are a few additional tips to keep in mind when mentioning a quote:
– Be sure to provide context for the quote. Explain why it is important or relevant. – Use bullet points or other formatting devices to break up long quotes. – In your final thoughts, reflect on what the quote means to you and why it is significant.
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The following is adapted from OWL at Purdue. See the link below for more detailed information.
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work . Retrieved from (date and URL)
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Heuristic. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heuristic
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher name.
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Inc.
To cite a definition within the text, you would place the institution or organizations and the date of publication in parentheses after the relevant phrase and before the punctuation mark.
If the definition is quoted, you must also add the page number.
According to Merriam-Webster, andragogy is "the art or science of teaching adults"... (Merriam-Webster, 1993, p. 85).
For additional help with using APA style, see resources below.
Links & Files
- Dictionary Entry References (APA)
- Citing Electronic Sources in APA (Purdue OWL)
- Writing Help
- Citation Styles
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APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Biblical Sources
- Journal Articles
- Magazine/Newspaper Articles
- Books & Ebooks
- Government & Legal Documents
- Biblical Sources
- Secondary Sources
- Films/Videos/TV Shows
- How to Cite: Other
- Additional Help
Table of Contents
Bible dictionary, single-volume commentary, multi-volume bible commentary, book-length commentary in a series.
Citing the Bible
Bible Chapters and Verses
Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.
A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.
This Microsoft support page contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.
In the Body of a Paper
Books, Journals, Reports, Webpages, etc.: When you refer to titles of a “stand-alone work,” as the APA calls them on their APA Style website, such as books, journals, reports, and webpages, you should italicize them. Capitalize words as you would for an article title in a reference, e.g., In the book Crying in H Mart: A memoir , author Michelle Zauner (2021) describes her biracial origin and its impact on her identity.
Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter “Where’s the Wine,” Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.
The APA Sample Paper below has more information about formatting your paper.
- APA 7th ed. Sample Paper
Sarna, N. M. (2008). Exodus, book of. In D. N. Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Yale bible dictionary (Vol. 2, pp. 689- 700). Yale University Press.
(Author's Last Name, Year)
Example: (Sarna, 2008)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)
(Sarna, 2008, p. 690)
Browning, W. R. F. (2009). Daniel, book of. In A Dictionary of the Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199543984.001.0001/acref9780199543984-e-485
Example: (Browning, 2009)
(Author's Last Name, Year) - if the online source does not provide page numbers then omit the page number from the in-text citation
A single-volume commentary is a book that contains chapters covering each of the books of the Bible.
Perkins, P. (1990). The gospel according to John. In R. E. Brown, J. A. Firzmyer, & R. E. Murphy (Eds.), The new Jerome biblical commentary (pp. 942-85) . Prentice-Hall.
Example: (Perkins, 1990)
(Perkins, 1990, p. 955)
Franklin, E. (2001). Luke. In J. Barton and J. Muddiman (Eds.), Oxford bible commentary . Oxford University Press. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/uportland/reader.action?docID=10269141
Example: (Franklin, 2001)
(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number) - if the online source does not provide page numbers then omit the page number from the in-text citation
A multi-volume commentary is a set of multiple books that contains chapters covering each of the books of the Bible.
Perkins, P. (1994). Mark. In L. E. Keck (Ed.), The New interpreter’s bible (Vol. 8, pp. 507-734). Abingdon Press.
Example: (Perkins, 1994)
(Perkins, 1994, p. 601)
A book-length commentary is a book that includes commentary on just one book of the Bible (and sometimes only part of one book of the Bible).
Vinson, R. B. (2008). Luke . Smyth & Helwys bible commentary. Smyth & Helwys.
Example: (Vinson, 2008)
(Vinson, 2008, p. 302)
Vinson, R. B. (2008). Luke . Smyth & Helwys bible commentary. Smyth & Helwys. https://login.uportland.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=942774&sit e=ehost-live&scope=site
Citing the Bible
Citing the Version of the Bible
The first time you paraphrase or quote from the Bible, identify which version of the Bible that you used. Include both the original and republished publication dates in the reference. You do not need to repeat the version name in subsequent references. Then cite the Bible in your reference list.
King James Bible . (2017). King James Bible Online . https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
In the body of your paper, include a sentence similar to this:
The researchers consulted the Bible (King James Version, 1769/2017) to provide items for the development of their religious values assessment.
Citing Biblical Chapters and Verses
When referring to books of the Bible within the body of your paper:
- Example: Genesis, Luke 4, Revelation 1-3
- Example: Exod 2:1-3; Matt 13:12
Note: it isn't necessary to add a period after the abbreviated book name. Include a space between the book name and the chapter number, and include a colon between the chapter number and the verse(s).
Citing Introductions, Annotations, or Supplemental Content in the Bible
Bibles that have annotations, introductions, or other supplemental content should cite the editors in place of authors. If the supplemental content is written by someone other than the editors of the book, then cite the content as a chapter within a book.
Carr, D. M. (2010). Introduction to Genesis. In M. D. Coogan, M. Z. Brettler, C. Newsom, & P. Perkins (Eds.), The new Oxford annotated bible with apocrypha: New revised standard version (pp. 7-11). Oxford University Press.
Kaiser, W. C., Jr., & Garrett, D. (Eds.). (2006). NIV archaeological study bible: An illustrated walk through biblical history and culture . Zondervan.
(Carr, 2010, p. 8)
(Kaiser & Garrett, 2006, Genesis 1:20)
(Kaiser & Garrett, 2006, footnote to Genesis 1:12, p. 4)
See the APA "Religious Work References" page for more guidance.
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Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) In-Text Citations: The Basics APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors
Graduate Writing. Subject-Specific Writing. Job Search Writing. Multilingual. OWL Exercises 🡽. Purdue OWL. Research and Citation. APA Style (7th Edition) APA Style (7th Edition)
Purdue OWL Research and Citation APA Style (7th Edition) APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources
These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster. Cite your source automatically in APA Cite
Style Guide Overview MLA Guide APA Guide Chicago Guide OWL Exercises Note for Purdue Students: Schedule a consultation at the on-campus writing lab to get more in-depth writing help from one of our tutors.
Purdue OWL Research and Citation Using Research Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.
Purdue OWL General Writing Punctuation Quotation Marks How to Use Quotation Marks How to Use Quotation Marks Using Quotation Marks The primary function of quotation marks is to set off and represent exact language (either spoken or written) that has come from somebody else.
APA 7th Edition Citation Format instructions--Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) APA Style Manual Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. by American Psychological Association Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2020 (three copies at HSSE reference desk, one in HICKS) ISBN: 9781433832161 Publication Date: 2020
Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) provides instruction on how to use APA 7th. Below are a few topics covered by the OWL. APA Style Introduction APA 7th APA Overview and Workshop APA 7th General Formatting APA 7th In-Text Citation: Authors APA 7th Foot Notes and Appendices APA 7th Changes in the 7th Edition APA 7th Last Updated: Feb 2, 2023 12:58 PM
Keep all of your citations in one safe place Create an account to save all of your citations Don't let plagiarism errors spoil your paper Scan your paper for plagiarism mistakes Get help for 7,000+ citation styles including APA 6 Check for 400+ advanced grammar errors Create in-text citations and save them Free 3-day trial. Cancel anytime.*️
QUOTATIONS . Paraphrasing is preferred, but i f a direct quote is less than Svendsen says tha t "[i]t is important that readers know when you are borrowing someone else's exact words" (2013, p. 1) quote." Svendsen (2013) says the following: It is important that readers know when you are borrowing someone else's exact words. Otherwise,
Quotations are covered in Section 8.25 to 8.34 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition This guidance has been from the 6th edition. In-Text Citation Checklist (PDF, 227KB) Short quotations (fewer than 40 words)
If there is more than one sentence in the block quote, put it after the very last sentence. Include the author's last name, year of publication, and the page or paragraph number.  If the signal phrase includes the author's name and year of publication, you only need to cite the page number at the end of the quote.
Provide any edition information about the dictionary in parentheses without italics after the dictionary title. Provide the page number for the entry in parentheses after the title of the dictionary. When both an edition and page number are present, place them in the same set of parentheses, separated with a comma. Date created: February 2020.
For the formatting, follow the same guidelines as for other quotations: Present a quotation of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks within the text. Present a quotation of 40 words or more in a block quotation indented below the text. State in the text that the quotations are from participants, as in this example:
For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided.. The following format will be used: In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue.. In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in ...
To directly quote from material with canonically numbered sections (e.g., religious or classical works), use the name of the book, chapter, verse, line, and/or canto instead of a page number. The person vowed to "set me as a seal upon thine heart" ( King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6). For plays, cite the act, scene, and line (s).
Using In-text Citation. Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).
Although written for psychology, this style adapts well for most subjects including engineering. In addition to providing guidance on grammar, the mechanics of writing, and APA style, this manual offers an authoritative reference and citation system. Call Number: BF76.7 .P83 2020. ISBN: 9781433832161.
Long quotations. Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
When using APA Style to cite an author quoted in an article, you will need to use "p." if the quote is on a single webpage, and "pp." if the quote covers a range of pages. You can also include parenthetical, narrative, or both in your APA In-text Citation. Context with examples:
The following is adapted from OWL at Purdue. See the link below for more detailed information. Online: Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. ... Citing Electronic Sources in APA (Purdue OWL) Related Topics . Writing Help; Citation Styles; Contact the CMU Libraries Ask a Librarian: Call (989) 774-3470: Email: Text (989) 863-4639
Article or Chapter: When you refer to the title of a part of a work, such as an article or a chapter, put quotation marks around the title and capitalize it as you would for a journal title in a reference, e.g., In the chapter "Where's the Wine," Zauner (2021) describes how she decided to become a musician.