historical sociology literature review

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Doing a Literature Review in Sociology

Introduction, early in the process, during data analysis, getting ready to write, before submitting the paper.

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A literature review helps you figure out what scholars, what studies, and what questions your project is in conversation with. It typically happens in stages throughout the life of your project – it is not something you do once and are then finished with!

This guide explores how to think about and do a literature review at four different stages of a project. On this page, Professor Wendy Cadge suggests how to think about each step. Get specific advice on strategies for searching and organizing on the subsequent pages of this guide.

​Wendy's Process

The first time I do a literature review is when I am thinking about possible research topics and questions and want to know what people have written about these questions and what they have found. I search the topics and questions broadly aiming to get a relatively comprehensive sense of what is known about my topic and whether there is space for another study that is going to contribute meaningfully to the conversation. I am trying to figure out both who is in this conversation (what scholars specifically but also in what fields), what they are talking about, and what is known and not known according to these experts.

The goal here is to figure out whether my study will be new and relevant and whether there is a way to motivate it both empirically and theoretically for the audience I am thinking of. I need this answer to be yes in order to proceed with the process.

As I do this initial literature review I am also refining my research question, asking myself whether it makes sense, how it relates to the ways others have approached my topic, etc. Often questions are too big (they will require thousands of pages to answer) or too small (you don’t need an empirical study to answer them) so I am also trying to get my question to be the right size as I do this first review.

My search strategies are as follows   Google Scholar and Sociological Abstracts with key terms, and focus on books published by major presses and articles in well-known journals. When I get hits I sort them into groups based on what they are - materials by sociologists, by other academics, by journalists, etc. I only read things that are published (no conference papers!) and read books in the top academic presses first (Chicago, UC Berkeley, Princeton, Oxford, Cambridge) and things in well-known sociology journals. (See the box to the left for links to these journals.) Depending on the topic, I may read a lot written by non-sociologists to learn more . I read almost nothing in the popular media on the first go through.

I also don’t “read” everything - I skim books and read article abstracts to get an overview. The goal is to write 5-6 double spaced pages about what is known and what my study might add. I also want to have a set of more specific search terms and author names to search later. Typically I am mostly reviewing the sociology literature to think about how to fit this into a social science frame while also separating out “primary sources” to read later. These other sources about my topic include data (like government reports, statistical information etc.), which will be analyzed later rather than used for sociological framing.

Before I start collecting data I check with various colleagues to make sure my assessment of the literature and the place of my study in it (my 5-6 page document) makes sense and is convincing (i.e., I don’t want to waste my time gathering data to answer a question that people either don’t think is interesting, has already been answered in the literature, or isn’t going to add anything new and significant to the conversation. I don’t want to be the dud at the dinner party who is saying something people already know or doesn’t have anything to say.

Themes typically emerge in the process of analyzing the data that require me to revisit what I think I know about my topic and question from the literature. This is usually the place where I am trying to figure out what my empirical and theoretical arguments are. Often I have ideas about what my theoretical hooks or arguments might be but they come from other literatures, scholars or friends working in different parts of sociology, etc. This is often where I go back to the literature (via Annual Review articles and searches) to see how people have used certain concepts and to see if those concepts might help me articulate what I am finding. I also read the key empirical articles cited in the Annual Review articles to see how what I am finding is similar to and different from what others know and how I can relate to those studies with my data.

Search strategies Google scholar and Sociological Abstracts, Annual review articles, asking people who know the discipline better than I do where to go to learn about concept x or y. At this point I’m looking for ideas as I read that will help me make and articulate whatever arguments might be supported by my data.

By the time I finish this step I have a good sense of what my findings and argument are and how they fit i nto the existing conversation / literature.

If I have done the above two steps well, I probably have an outline by now that lays out what I think my findings are and how I am going to situate them and motivate them in existing literatures. Before I start to write I read through my entire Endnote database and I put citations and notes in the outline that will help me make certain points. If I see holes or don’t feel like the outline is tight enough I do more lit review at this point to help me situate my question as tightly as possible in existing literature. While articles are written in a way that makes it look like you do the lit review, then the data collection and analysis, then articulate the findings, etc. this is actually iterative for me through the whole process.

For more information on EndNote and other citation management software like Zotero, see the Organizing section of this guide .

Search strategies The same as what’s outlined above. Part of the trick here though is knowing when to stop searching and start writing! I try to start writing before I feel like I am finished reading because I will discover as I write what is missing and will go back and fill it in.

I have friends and colleagues read my paper and give me feedback. If this is going to a journal I look at the editorial board and make sure I have engaged with the ideas of any scholars on the editorial board that are relevant as these people are likely to be reviewers . I also always fill in a lot of citations after the article is drafted so I can see it as a whole and see what is and is not needed to make the argument more compelling.

Search strategies This is when I am looking up certain people usually on the web to see if I read relevant publications or am searching for a particular article. If I know I need some citations about a certain topic to support a point, this is also when I find them. This is usually the easiest part of the process.

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Sociology: lit reviews.

Literature Review

In a  literature review you explore research that has come before you and is relevant to your topic. It can help you identify:

Helpful approaches:

Writing Guidelines:

Systematic Reviews

Systematic reviews are not the same as literature reviews; instead, they can be considered an extremely rigorous subset of literature reviews.  Generally, systematic reviews take a team of professionals and one to two years to complete, and they usually can't be done for avenues of research which are newly being explored (there needs to be an established body of literature to examine).  This makes them very helpful resources if they exist for your topic of interest!

You may wish to peruse UCSF's  Systematic Review Guide  for information.

If you do decide to do a systematic review, UC Berkeley licenses  Covidence , a tool to help you. In Covidence, you can  import citations ,  screen titles and abstracts ,  upload references ,  screen full text ,  create forms for critical appraisal ,  perform risk of bias tables ,  complete data extraction , and  export a PRISMA flowchart  summarizing your review process. As an institutional member, our users have priority access to Covidence support.   To access Covidence using the UC Berkeley institutional account ,  start at this page  and follow the instructions.

Great brief overview, from NCSU

Synthesizing the literature

Now That You Have All Those Articles, How Do You Synthesize Them?

Unlike the annotated bibliography, the literature review does not just summarize each article or book. Instead, they synthesize. Some researchers find it helpful to develop a framework, making a column for each element that they want to compare. The elements vary depending on the research, making it easier to understand the relationships between  all  the articles and how they relate to your research. Here's  one example !

How To Organize and Cite Your Research

Citation management tools  help you manage your research, collect and cite sources, and create bibliographies in a variety of citation styles.  Each one has its strengths and weaknesses, but any are easier than doing it by hand! The Library offers   workshops  on Endnote, Zotero, and Refworks. I'm also happy to help arrange a small group workshop, or one on one help with Zotero. 

For more information on the various tools available, and more on Zotero, see the "Managing Citations" tab in this guide!

Find Dissertations

Dissertations and Theses (Dissertation Abstracts) Full Text : indexes dissertations from over 1,000 North American, and selected European, graduate schools and universities from 1861 to the present. Full text for most of the dissertations added since 1997.

UC Berkeley dissertations : Search UC Library Search  by author. Also helpful to see dissertations written in your department which you can do by doing a subject search:

Recent UC Berkeley dissertations are freely available online to anyone, anywhere with access to the internet. Also see  Find Dissertations and Theses  for other specialized sources.

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What is a Literature Review?

The scholarly conversation.

A literature review provides an overview of previous research on a topic that critically evaluates, classifies, and compares what has already been published on a particular topic. It allows the author to synthesize and place into context the research and scholarly literature relevant to the topic. It helps map the different approaches to a given question and reveals patterns. It forms the foundation for the author’s subsequent research and justifies the significance of the new investigation.

A literature review can be a short introductory section of a research article or a report or policy paper that focuses on recent research. Or, in the case of dissertations, theses, and review articles, it can be an extensive review of all relevant research.

Key Questions for a Literature Review

A literature review should try to answer questions such as

Examples of Literature Reviews

Example of a literature review at the beginning of an article: Forbes, C. C., Blanchard, C. M., Mummery, W. K., & Courneya, K. S. (2015, March). Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors . Oncology Nursing Forum, 42(2), 118+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.sonoma.idm.oclc.org/ps/i.do?p=HRCA&sw=w&u=sonomacsu&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CA422059606&asid=27e45873fddc413ac1bebbc129f7649c Example of a comprehensive review of the literature: Wilson, J. L. (2016). An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature.   British Journal Of Nursing ,  25 (6), 303-306. For additional examples, see:

Galvan, J., Galvan, M., & ProQuest. (2017). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences (Seventh ed.). [Electronic book]

Pan, M., & Lopez, M. (2008). Preparing literature reviews: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Pub. [ Q180.55.E9 P36 2008]

Useful Links

Evidence Matrix for Literature Reviews

The  Evidence Matrix  can help you  organize your research  before writing your lit review.  Use it to  identify patterns  and commonalities in the articles you have found--similar methodologies ?  common  theoretical frameworks ? It helps you make sure that all your major concepts covered. It also helps you see how your research fits into the context  of the overall topic.

What is a Literature Review?

A literature review is an essential component of every research project. It requires “re-viewing” what credible scholars in the field have said, done, and found in order to help you:

Helpful Tools for Literature Reviews

As you read, you'll encounter various ideas, disagreements, methods, and perspectives which can be hard to organize in a meaningful way. Because you'll be reading a number of resources, a synthesis matrix helps you record the main points of each source and document how sources relate to each other.


Sociology Research Guide

What is a Lit Review?

How to write a lit review.

Main Objectives

Examples of lit reviews, additional resources.

What is a literature review?

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The organization of your lit review should be determined based on what you'd like to highlight from your research. Here are a few suggestions:

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Your literature review should:

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History of Sociology by Stephen Turner LAST REVIEWED: 10 August 2020 LAST MODIFIED: 21 January 2016 DOI: 10.1093/obo/9780199756384-0140

The history of sociology is both a traditional area of sociology itself and a part of the history of the social sciences as studied by intellectual historians and historians of science. The earliest writings on the subject were completed by sociologists attempting to construct a canon and a history of the discipline reaching into the distant past. This style of history remained important in sociology for a very long period in American sociology and was part of the original remit of the flagship journal of what was then called the American Sociological Society in 1936. This changed after 1945 with the generation of Robert Merton and Talcott Parsons but persisted in Europe as academic sociology was refounded in specific national academic settings as a taught field and in the light of a new internationalism. Historians began writing in earnest about the subject in the 1960s and 1970s. There is a traditional divide between “disciplinary histories” written by members of the discipline and writings by professional historians. Although this line has blurred in recent years, there is a basic distinction between work that is historical in the sense of being based on archives and work that interprets books. Both are found here. Sociology has generally been less celebratory of its own history than psychology and lacks the rich autobiographical material that psychology has generated, but there is now a certain amount of online material, sometimes in the form of oral history interviews for university archives, that tells the stories of individual careers, and a small number of books that can serve as primary sources. Sociology also has a close relation to social reform, so the historian of sociology needs to understand the various reform movements and organizations that interacted with it. British developments paralleled American reform movements and require a similar approach. In Europe, there was also a social reform movement prior to Second World War, but it was eclipsed by the postwar welfare state and the ideological movements of the Left, which have a complex and largely unanalyzed relation to academic sociology. These relations are clearer in the context of the Frankfurt School, which was not a part of academic sociology originally but which later produced academic sociologists in Germany and elsewhere in Europe and influenced many sociologists internationally. More recently, the discipline as well as the history of sociology itself has been influenced by the women’s movement. This bibliography attempts to provide the rudiments of a background to researchers and students with an interest in this rich history.

General overviews of the history of social thought leading to and including the era of scientific sociology were characteristic of the early decades of sociology. This genre is virtually nonexistent today. However, some of these early anthologies still have considerable value as guides to relatively obscure figures in the history of sociology and as evidence of the thinking of their authors, who are now of historical interest. The differences in the books reflect very different interpretations of the past and different eras of interpretation. Among the major overviews are Sorokin 1928 , which makes shrewd observations that are still relevant today, and Ellwood 1938 , a bestseller with a public audience that paralleled standard American texts in the history of philosophy and the history of political theory but was side-lined during the postwar period. Barnes and Becker 1938 is even more comprehensive. Parsons 1937 was an attempt to reorient the canon and succeeded in doing so. McDonald 1993 provides a feminist reinterpretation of the canon, bringing in many women. The most recent major attempt at comprehensive coverage is Levine 1995 . Coser 1977 was a standard source in the 1970s, and the choices of subjects and interpretation reflect the era, but it remains valuable as an introduction to the thinkers in the canon of the time.

Barnes, Harry Elmer, and Howard Becker. 1938. Social thought from lore to science . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

This is a huge compendium of social thinkers with no subsequent parallel that is exceptionally cosmopolitan

Coser, Louis. 1977. Masters of sociological thought: Ideas in historical and social context . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Although this is a textbook, it was a dominant source for biographical interpretation in the 1960s and remains accessible and readable. Originally published in 1971.

Ellwood, Charles. 1938. A history of social philosophy . New York: Prentice Hall.

A bestseller in its time, this book explicates thinkers from the Enlightenment to the early 20th century by placing their thought in context and in relation to others.

Levine, Donald. 1995. Visions of the sociological tradition . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

A large, reflexive, and very up-to-date reconsideration of the tradition.

McDonald, Lynn. 1993. The early origins of the social sciences . Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press.

Beginning with the Greeks, this book is concerned with recognizing feminist issues and women social thinkers.

Parsons, Talcott. 1937. The structure of social action . New York: Free Press.

A flawed but influential classic, which promoted the canonical status of Max Weber and Émile Durkheim in its time.

Sorokin, Pitirim. 1928. Contemporary sociological theories . New York: Harper.

Sorokin’s contemporaries are our classics. The book is full of shrewd comments on key ideas in sociology.

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Historical Literature Review

The appearance in 1983 of U.S. News and World Report ratings of U.S. colleges based on a survey of college presidents (Solorzano and Quick 1983) marked the beginning of the modern era in rankings, with a shift in emphasis from small studies in scholarly publications to a national comparison for a general audience. By 1990, the magazine's rankings included university provided student and faculty measures to go along with the initial “reputational “ survey of college presidents, Governments and scholars had been publishing quality or research rankings for over 100 years. Salmi and Saroyan (2007) examine rankings and public accountability and also identify statistical annual reports published by the Commission of the US Bureau of Education from 1870–1890 that classified institutions.

Pagell and Lusk (2002) discuss a series of early scholarly business school rankings. The earliest work they cite, Raymond Hughes' “A Study of Graduate School of America”, published on behalf of the America Council of Education., rated 19 graduate departments in the U.S., primarily Ivy League private universities and the major mid-western state universities. All but three of his initial 19 do not appear on one of this article's list of top 30 worldwide universities today (See Table 8 below). Magnoun (1966) compares additional studies using Hughes methodology and analyzes the consistencies and changes during the 40 year interval. He emphasizes the importance of the rankings to university administration and the importance of quality graduate programs to the country as a whole. Other studies that Pagell and Lusk examine focus on individual departments and they count pages, publications and weighted page counts. The American Educational Research Association sponsored research rankings in the 1970s (Blau and Margulies 1974; Schubert 1979). Kroc introduces citation analysis for schools of education and analyzes early challenges using Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), many of which persist today (Kroc 1984). These earlier rankings focused on specific departments in a limited number of U S universities. While scholarly rankings in today's higher education environment are global, individual disciplines continue to use their own rankings. For example, Jin published two studies on economic rankings in East Asia relying on Econlit and page counts(Jin and Yau 1999; Jin and Hong 2008). The economics open access repository RePEc contains numerous rankings using multiple metrics, based on authors' deposits in the repository (IDEAS 2013).

No one ranking is “correct”. However, there is a consistency across top rankings. In the scholarly surveys this paper cites, spanning 1925 to 2014, employing peer review and a variety of counting methodologies across different subject categories, a limited number of schools are number one with Harvard leading the way.

historical sociology literature review


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Sociology Literature Review

Sociology Literature Review

Sociology Literature Review: Get Effective Tips for Successful Writing

If you are majoring in Sociology, it is important to be well aware of how to write a sociology literature review on the given topic. Particularly, you need to have in-depth knowledge of the specific steps on how to organize your pre-writing and writing stage of a literature review.

How to Start a Sociology Literature Review?

First of all, make sure you compose an outline. Even though any students consider it as a waste of time, it actually helps you to save time in the very process of writing and developing ideas and arguments in the paper. With a developed outline, you will be able to stay more focused on the very discussion, as you will have a backbone of your paper in front of your eyes. When working on an outline, you will develop a plan of what your paper will look like. Writing an outline is helpful when you are working on different types of papers. When it comes to a literature review outline , make sure that the structure differs depending on the type of review, namely whether it is historical or argumentative.

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When it comes to a historical review, you need to narrow down the topic and focus on the specific aspect that defines the very event under discussion. When you work on a historical literature review sociology, make sure to consider the following aspects:

If you have selected an argumentative literature review, the argument you put forward should ether support or refute your main idea in the topic. Once you have developed a specific viewpoint or argument, you should consistently develop it and link all the ideas to the central claim.

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How to Write a Literature Review Sociology?

When working on a literature review in sociology, make sure you are aware of specific methods or strategies that will help you develop a high-quality paper. First of all, you need to provide a comprehensive literature review that is different from the already existent literature reviews on the same topic. Overall, if you need to provide a literature review APA, you need to follow a specific plan:

How and Where to Find Sources for a Successful Literature Review?

Students frequently worry about where they can find appropriate and legitimate sources for their literature review in sociology. Actually, you can use any sources as long as they are credible and updated. You can use the Internet sources , books, journal articles, newspapers, magazines, online databases and libraries, and many other media of information if you need to find some sources. When organizing the review, it is advisable to use ASA writing and formatting style. Before submitting the literature review, make sure you clarify how long the review should be. You need to adhere to the requirements of the stated paper length so that you write as much as it is necessary. The literature review should perfectly fit into the paper and not exceed the length of the main body. To ease you the task of literature review writing , you may browse some sociology literature review example online and have a look at how it is organized and how many words it takes up.

How to Conduct a Literature Review in an Effective Way?

Once you have selected the topic for your literature review, you need to research the relevant information and make sure it is clearly discussed within the paper. However, for many students, one of the most challenging aspects of literature review writing is to come up with an appealing and effective sociology topic. To ease you this task, we have composed a list of sociology literature review topics that will provide you some fresh ideas on writing. Check a few of them out:

What to Take into Consideration While Working on a Literature Review?

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Soc 001: introductory sociology.

Literature Reviews

What is a Literature Review? The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is significant to the work that you are carrying out. This overview identifies prominent research trends in addition to assessing the overall strengths and weaknesses of the existing research.

Purpose of the Literature Review

Characteristics of an effective literature review In addition to fulfilling the purposes outlined above, an effective literature review provides a critical overview of existing research by

Steps of the Literature Review Process

1) Planning: identify the focus, type, scope and discipline of the review you intend to write. 2) Reading and Research: collect and read current research on your topic. Select only those sources that are most relevant to your project. 3) Analyzing: summarize, synthesize, critique, and compare your sources in order to assess the field of research as a whole. 4) Drafting: develop a thesis or claim to make about the existing research and decide how to organize your material. 5) Revising: revise and finalize the structural, stylistic, and grammatical issues of your paper.

This process is not always a linear process; depending on the size and scope of your literature review, you may find yourself returning to some of these steps repeatedly as you continue to focus your project.

These steps adapted from the full workshop offered by the Graduate Writing Center at Penn State. 

Literature Review Format



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120 Fresh and Thought-Provoking Topics for Literature Reviews in Different Disciplines

A literature review is an account of the scholarly works published on a topic. It is different from an annotated bibliography – and far more interesting at that. Instead of being just a list of summaries, a literature review synthesizes the information from all available sources in an overall relationship to your guiding concept. This may be the problem you are discussing, a statement you are arguing, a theory you are verifying, etc.

The goals of a literature review may vary:

That is why good literature review topics are often formulated as research questions. This type of paper is not an easy writing. You will need to parse immense volumes of information, synthesize and summarize coherently. You also need to devote plenty of time to reading.

This post contains a list of literature review topics suggested for various subjects. However, when choosing the most fitting one to dig into, ask yourself, what are the passions that you can apply to this research? This assignment will take a while, so you will need more than just a good study discipline to soldier on. A bit of enthusiasm and intrinsic motivation will get you much farther.

Literature Review Topics Examples on English and World Literature

Some of the suggestions in this post are linked to literature review examples in our free database. By clicking on a title, you get to a corresponding sample page, where you can read the entire text. If the topic you like isn't linked, but you would like to read an example, you can order it. We will arrange the most qualified paper writer to prepare it for you exclusively.

Ready? Let's start with topics for literature review papers on English and World Literature.

Lit Review Topic Ideas on Science and Technology

Next are some literature review topic ideas on science and technology.

As the field is vast, we can barely scratch the surface with these suggestions. To help you with brainstorming, here are a few tips on how to choose good topics for a literature review yourself:

Follow these guidelines, and you are on a path to some great ideas!

Psychology Literature Review Topics

When brainstorming topics on psychology, don't forget about the subdisciplines: biopsychology, social, educational, organizational, etc. If the suggestions below won't be enough, try looking for inspiration in Biology, Sociology, Education, or Business. The most exciting topics are often at the intersection of different areas of knowledge!

Nursing Literature Review Topics

Nursing lit review topics are probably the most diverse in scale, as you can see from the examples below. They can describe a larger issue or a concrete solution applied to a narrowly defined problem. Following this principle, you can modify our lit review topics suggestions zooming out or in on the subject material.

Education Literature Review Topics

To get more ideas from these literature review topic examples, try isolating an issue and put it in another educational context. For instance, student motivation in primary school vs. middle school or sleep deprivation in high school vs. college. This should give you plenty of material for brainstorming.

Sociology Literature Review Topics

The best advice on finding current sociology topics is to look at the challenges your community faces. Become the first one to notice and address these issues!

Political Science Literature Review Topics

Political science is one of the more formal disciplines on this list. Being heavy with abstract concepts, it doesn't lend itself easily to casual brainstorming. Well, at least start with these:

Criminal Justice Literature Review Topics

Criminal justice is a complex field. It's ripe with variance and challenges – which is good for topic ideas at least. And you have state, federal, and international levels to add more variables.

Chemistry and Biology Literature Review Topics

Biology is fascinating. It has something for everyone: from biochemistry and genetics to ecosystems and nature preservation. Here are some suggestions to guide your choice:

Business and Marketing Literature Review Topics

Finally, here are some business and marketing topics as well. These disciplines might be relatively new, but they are among the most dynamic and information-rich – which means great fun to explore.

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Encyclopedia Britannica

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sociology , a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them. It does this by examining the dynamics of constituent parts of societies such as institutions, communities , populations, and gender, racial, or age groups. Sociology also studies social status or stratification, social movements , and social change , as well as societal disorder in the form of crime, deviance , and revolution .

Social life overwhelmingly regulates the behaviour of humans , largely because humans lack the instincts that guide most animal behaviour . Humans therefore depend on social institutions and organizations to inform their decisions and actions. Given the important role organizations play in influencing human action, it is sociology’s task to discover how organizations affect the behaviour of persons, how they are established, how organizations interact with one another, how they decay, and, ultimately, how they disappear. Among the most basic organizational structures are economic, religious, educational, and political institutions, as well as more specialized institutions such as the family, the community , the military, peer groups, clubs, and volunteer associations.

Sociology, as a generalizing social science, is surpassed in its breadth only by anthropology —a discipline that encompasses archaeology , physical anthropology , and linguistics . The broad nature of sociological inquiry causes it to overlap with other social sciences such as economics , political science , psychology , geography , education , and law . Sociology’s distinguishing feature is its practice of drawing on a larger societal context to explain social phenomena.

Sociologists also utilize some aspects of these other fields. Psychology and sociology, for instance, share an interest in the subfield of social psychology , although psychologists traditionally focus on individuals and their mental mechanisms. Sociology devotes most of its attention to the collective aspects of human behaviour , because sociologists place greater emphasis on the ways external groups influence the behaviour of individuals.

The field of social anthropology has been historically quite close to sociology. Until about the first quarter of the 20th century, the two subjects were usually combined in one department (especially in Britain), differentiated mainly by anthropology’s emphasis on the sociology of preliterate peoples. Recently, however, this distinction has faded, as social anthropologists have turned their interests toward the study of modern culture .

Two other social sciences, political science and economics, developed largely from the practical interests of nations. Increasingly, both fields have recognized the utility of sociological concepts and methods. A comparable synergy has also developed with respect to law, education, and religion and even in such contrasting fields as engineering and architecture. All of these fields can benefit from the study of institutions and social interaction.

Historical development of sociology

Though sociology draws on the Western tradition of rational inquiry established by the ancient Greeks, it is specifically the offspring of 18th- and 19th-century philosophy and has been viewed, along with economics and political science, as a reaction against speculative philosophy and folklore. Consequently, sociology separated from moral philosophy to become a specialized discipline. While he is not credited with the founding of the discipline of sociology, French philosopher Auguste Comte is recognized for having coined the term sociology .

The founders of sociology spent decades searching for the proper direction of the new discipline. They tried several highly divergent pathways, some driven by methods and contents borrowed from other sciences, others invented by the scholars themselves. To better view the various turns the discipline has taken, the development of sociology may be divided into four periods: the establishment of the discipline from the late 19th century until World War I , interwar consolidation, explosive growth from 1945 to 1975, and the subsequent period of segmentation.

Some of the earliest sociologists developed an approach based on Darwinian evolutionary theory. In their attempts to establish a scientifically based academic discipline, a line of creative thinkers, including Herbert Spencer , Benjamin Kidd, Lewis H. Morgan , E.B. Tylor , and L.T. Hobhouse , developed analogies between human society and the biological organism. They introduced into sociological theory such biological concepts as variance, natural selection , and inheritance—asserting that these evolutionary factors resulted in the progress of societies from stages of savagery and barbarism to civilization by virtue of the survival of the fittest . Some writers believed that these stages of society could be seen in the developmental stages of each individual. Strange customs were explained by assuming that they were throwbacks to useful practices of an earlier period, such as the make-believe struggle sometimes enacted between the bridegroom and the bride’s relatives reflecting the earlier custom of bride capture.

In its popular period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social Darwinism , along with the doctrines of Adam Smith and Thomas Malthus , touted unrestricted competition and laissez-faire so that the “fittest” would survive and civilization would continue to advance. Although the popularity of social Darwinism waned in the 20th century, the ideas on competition and analogies from biological ecology were appropriated by the Chicago School of sociology (a University of Chicago program focusing on urban studies, founded by Albion Small in 1892) to form the theory of human ecology that endures as a viable study approach.

PMLA is the journal of the Modern Language Association of America. Since 1884, PMLA has published members' essays judged to be of interest to scholars and teachers of language and literature. Four issues each year (January, March, May, and October) contain essays on language and literature; a Directory issue (September) lists all members and the names and addresses of department and program administrators; and the November issue presents the program for the association's annual convention. Each issue of PMLA is mailed to over 29,000 MLA members and to 2,900 libraries worldwide.

Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. Cambridge Journals publishes over 250 peer-reviewed academic journals across a wide range of subject areas, in print and online. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org.

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historical sociology literature review

Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2023]

Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2023]

Writing a literature review might be easier than you think. You should understand its basic rules, and that’s it! This article is just about that.

Why is the literature review important? What are its types? We will uncover these and other possible questions.

Whether you are an experienced researcher or a student, this article will come in handy. Keep reading!

What Is a Literature Review?

Let’s start with the literature review definition.

Literature review outlooks the existing sources on a given topic. Its primary goal is to provide an overall picture of the study object. It clears up the context and showcases the analysis of the paper’s theoretical methodology.

In case you want to see the examples of this type of work, check out our collection of free student essays .

Importance of Literature Review

In most cases, you need to write a literature review as a part of an academic project. Those can be dissertations, theses, or research papers.

Why is it important?

Imagine your final research as a 100% bar. Let’s recall Pareto law: 20% of efforts make 80% of the result. In our case, 20% is preparing a literature review. Writing itself is less important than an in-depth analysis of current literature. Do you want to avoid possible frustration in academic writing? Make a confident start with a literature review.

Sure, it’s impossible to find a topic that hasn’t been discussed or cited. That is why we cannot but use the works of other authors. You don’t have to agree with them. Discuss, criticize, analyze, and debate.

So, the purpose of the literature review is to give the knowledge foundation for the topic and establish its understanding. Abstracting from personal opinions and judgments is a crucial attribute.

Types of Literature Review.

Types of Literature Review

You can reach the purpose we have discussed above in several ways, which means there are several types of literature review.

What sets them apart?

In short, it’s their research methods and structure. Let’s break down each type:

Remember: before writing a literature review, specify its type . Another step you should take is to argue your choice. Make sure it fits the research framework. It will save your time as you won’t need to figure out fitting strategies and methods.

Annotated Bibliography vs. Literature Review

Some would ask: isn’t what you are writing about is just an annotated bibliography ? Sure, both annotated bibliography and literature review list the research topic-related sources. But no more than that. Such contextual attributes as goal, structure, and components differ a lot.

For a more visual illustration of its difference, we made a table:

To sum up: an annotated bibliography is more referral. It does not require reading all the sources in the list. On the contrary, you won’t reach the literature review purpose without examining all the sources cited.

Literature Review: Step-by-Step Strategy.

Literature Review: Step-by-Step Strategy

Now it’s time for a step-by-step guide. We are getting closer to a perfect literature review!

✔️ Step 1. Select the Topic

Selecting a topic requires looking from two perspectives. They are the following:

Regardless of the situation, you should not just list several literature items. On the contrary, build a decent logical connection and analysis. Only that way, you’ll answer the research question .

✔️ Step 2. Identify the Review Scope

One more essential thing to do is to define the research boundaries: don’t make them too broad or too narrow.

Push back on the chosen topic and define the number and level of comprehensiveness of your paper. Define the historical period as well. After that, select a pool of credible sources for further synthesis and analysis.

✔️ Step 3. Work with Sources

Investigate each chosen source. Note each important insight you come across. Learn how to cite a literature review to avoid plagiarism.

✔️ Step 4. Write a Literature Review Outline

No matter what the writing purpose is: research, informative, promotional, etc. The power of your future text is in the proper planning. If you start with a well-defined structure, there’s a much higher chance that you’ll reach exceptional results.

✔️ Step 5. Review the Literature

Once you’ve outlined your literature review, you’re ready for a writing part. While writing, try to be selective, thinking critically, and don’t forget to stay to the point. In the end, make a compelling literature review conclusion.

On top of the above five steps, explore some other working tips to make your literature review as informative as possible.

The purpose of literature review.

Literature Review Outline

We’ve already discussed the importance of a literature review outline. Now, it’s time to understand how to create it.

An outline for literature review has a bit different structure comparing with other types of paper works. It includes:

It can be a plus if you clarify the applicability of your literature review in further research.

Once you outline your literature review, you can slightly shorten your writing path. Let’s move on to actual samples of literature review.

Literature Review Examples

How does a well-prepared literature review look like? Check these three StudyCorgi samples to understand. Follow the table:

Take your time and read literature review examples to solidify knowledge and sharpen your skills. You’ll get a more definite picture of the literature review length, methods, and topics.

Do you still have any questions? Don’t hesitate to contact us! Our writing experts are ready to help you with your paper on time.

❓ What Is the Purpose of a Literature Review?

Literature review solves several problems at once. Its purpose is to identify and gather the top insights, gaps, and answers to research questions. Those help to get a general idea of the degree of topic exploration. As a result, it forms a basis for further research. Or vice versa: it reveals a lack of need for additional studies.

❓ How Do You Structure a Literature Review?

Like any other academic paper, a literature review consists of three parts: introduction, main body, and the conclusion. Each of them needs full disclosure and logical interconnection

The introduction contains the topic overview, its problematics, research methods, and other general attributes of academic papers.

The body reveals how each of the selected literature sources answers the formulated questions from the introduction.

The conclusion summarizes the key findings from the body, connects the research to existing studies, and outlines the need for further investigation.

To ensure the success of your analysis, you should equally uphold all of these parts.

❓ What Must a Literature Review Include?

A basic literature review includes the introduction with the research topic definition, its arguments, and problems. Then, it has a synthesis of the picked pieces of literature. It may describe the possible gaps and contradictions in existing research. The practical relevance and contribution to new studies are also welcome.

❓ What Are the 5 C's of Writing a Literature Review?

Don’t forget about these five C’s to make things easier in writing a literature review:

Cite. Make a list of references for research you’ve used and apply proper citation rules. Use Google Scholar for this.

Compare. Make a comparison of such literature attributes as theories, insights, trends, arguments, etc. It’s better to use tables or diagrams to make your content visual.

Contrast. Use listings to categorize particular approaches, themes, and so on.

Critique. Critical thinking is a must in any scientific research. Don’t take individual formulations as truth. Explore controversial points of view.

Connect. Find a place of your research between existing studies. Propose new possible areas to dig further.

❓ How Long Should a Literature Review Be?

In most cases, professors or educational establishment guidelines determine the length of a literature review. Study them and stick to their requirements, so you don’t get it wrong.

If there are no specific rules, make sure it is no more than 30% of the whole research paper.

If your literature review is not a part of the thesis and goes as a stand-alone paper — be concise but explore the research area in-depth.

You might also like

105 literature review topics + how-to guide [2023], study guide on the epic of gilgamesh, essay topics & sample, the necklace: summary, themes, and a short story analysis.


ALAN v26n1 - Roald Dahl and Sociology 101

Roald Dahl and Sociology 101 Sharon E. Royer Largely known as the author of James and the Giant Peach (1961) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964), Roald Dahl is also the author of three full-length works for early adolescents. It is of this group of young people that Dahl once said, " 'If my books can help children become readers, then I feel I have accomplished something important' " ( West ). Dahl's books for adolescents have caught the attention of young people and adults alike. The view of society revealed through his books--his implied criticism of adults and his contempt for social institutions--has made his works popular with adolescents. This same view has brought mixed reactions from critics. The variety of audiences that Dahl successfully wrote for throughout his career demonstrates his ability to appeal to specific groups of readers. Ironically, Roald Dahl wrote extensively for adults and children before he attempted to write books for young adults. His writing career began when Cecil Scott Forester interviewed him for the Saturday Evening Post and submitted Dahl's fictionalized account of his adventures in the Royal Air Force to the newspaper ( Pendergast ). In 1943, Dahl wrote his first children's story, The Gremlins, for Walt Disney, who wanted to make it into a film. Although it was never produced, Disney later published the story, complete with Disney's illustrations ( West ). After The Gremlins, Dahl left the field of children's literature and began writing short stories for adults. Although they were "generally macabre in nature, his stories won praise for their vivid details, carefully constructed plots, and surprise endings" ( West ). However, when he began to have difficulty coming up with new plots, Dahl decided to return to writing children's books. His first novel was James and the Giant Peach (1961), and his last was The Vicar of Nibbleswicke, published posthumously in 1991 ( Bulaong ). Dahl emphasized the importance of children's authors having experience with children when he noted, "Had I not had children of my own, I would have never written books for children, nor would I have been capable of doing so" ( Howard ). Dahl's first attempt at the young adult market was in 1977, with a collection of two autobiographical pieces, one essay, and four short stories, entitled The Wonderful Story of Henry Sugar and Six Others. This work was viewed by critics as more appropriate for adults, because only two stories had young characters; therefore, the book was not especially successful ( West ). Five years later, however, Dahl published the enormously popular The BFG . Three Novels that Appeal to Young Teens Dahl's three major works for intermediate readers, The BFG (1982), The Witches (1983), and Matilda (1988) have relatively young protagonists, although the books are written at middle school/junior high reading levels. These books are able to speak to young adolescent readers because the protagonists, in spite of their ages, are at stages in their psychosocial development similar to the readers. Erik Erikson, who studied under Sigmund Freud, said that young people between the ages of 12 to 18 experience the psychosocial crisis of "identity versus role confusion" ( Slavin ). During this stage, the task of adolescents is to establish themselves as independent and self-reliant individuals ( Slavin ). This is especially significant for early adolescents because studies show that students' self-esteem is lowest when they are entering middle school/junior high school ( Slavin ). Each of the protagonists in Dahl's books for intermediate readers illustrates the capacity of young people to accomplish great things, and to exhibit an independent spirit. The main character in The BFG is Sophie, an eight-year old orphan who is kidnapped by the Big Friendly Giant, or the BFG for short, after she sees him blowing dreams into people's windows. Fortunately for Sophie, the BFG is not interested in eating humans, as are the other nine inhabitants of Giant Country. Outraged by the other giants' disgusting eating habits, Sophie and the BFG develop a plot, which involves the heads of the Army and Air Force as well as the Queen of England, to stop the giants from eating children around the world. In Dahl's second work, The Witches, the main character is seven years old. His Norwegian grandmother, a retired witchophile, becomes his guardian upon the death of his parents. A short time later, when the two are vacationing in Bournemouth, England, the boy accidentally observes the Annual Meeting of the witches in England, and is turned into a mouse by The Grand High Witch. He manages to escape, and enlists the help of his indomitable grandmother to stop the witches' evil plot to kill all of the children in England in a very creative manner. The title character in Matilda is a five-year-old child genius whose corrupt parents are practically oblivious to her existence. When she begins to attend school she encounters Miss Honey, her quiet and lovable teacher. She also meets Miss Trunchbull, the headmistress, an ex-Olympic hammer thrower who continues to practice with children. "The Trunchbull" refuses to acknowledge Matilda's genius and promote her, but Matilda finds that she can channel her brainpower to manipulate objects. She then develops a plan to use her power to get rid of Miss Trunchbull for good, and to rectify the wrongs done to Miss Honey. These three books, with their young heroes and heroines, are major contributions to the young adult market, due to the high level of commonality that Roald Dahl's protagonists share with the readers. Dahl's View of the World- and Its Place in his Books Several occurrences in Dahl's life can be connected to emerging values seen in his literature for adolescents. From very early in life, he was isolated from society because his mother, who was Norwegian, did not feel comfortable in English society after the death of his father ( West ). He grew up hearing Norwegian myths and taking annual vacations to Norway, a setting which is significantly reflected in The Witches ( Howard ). Dahl's mother honored his father's wishes and sent their children to English schools, despite the fact that at that time English schools stressed corporal punishment, of which Dahl's mother did not approve ( West ). Consequently, Dahl was removed from preparatory school when he was severely beaten with a cane after he played a prank ( West ). Dahl remembered those times as "days of horrors, of fierce discipline, of not talking in the dormitories, no running in the corridors, no untidiness of any sort, no this or that or the other, just rules, rules and still more rules that had to be obeyed. And the fear of the dreaded cane hung over us like the fear of death all the time" ( Pendergast ). Later, Dahl attended Repton, a prestigious English private school, where the headmaster was a clergyman who flogged students without mercy ( West ). Such schools would later be reflected in Matilda through Miss Trunchbull, who is known for her capability to throw students great distances for offenses such as eating liquorice during scripture lessons ( Matilda ). The author of an unauthorized biography on Dahl comments further on the effect that Dahl's life had on his writings: "Dahl's moral universe was one in which there could be no question without an answer, no battle without victory, no irresoluble complexity. This was true of his writing, also" ( Treglown ). Hence, the sum of these experiences developed in Dahl the cynical view of society that is conveyed in his literature. Although most of Dahl's contemporary readers have not had the experiences that Dahl did, through his writing he establishes a common bond with all young people who have been oppressed or unfairly disciplined. This bond is developed as a result of Dahl's societal view, characterized by the belief that authorities and social institutions, such as government and schools, should not be trusted or accepted. Mark West, after spending a great deal of time interviewing Dahl and researching his works, concludes, "In almost all of Dahl's fiction--whether it be intended for children or for adults--authoritarian figures, social institutions, and societal norms are ridiculed or at least undermined" (x). Even the heads of the armed forces do not escape Dahl's scorn of social institutions. This attitude is seen in The BFG when the Head of the Air Force and the Head of the Army are unable to devise a plan to capture the child-eating giants. Consequently, the BFG states that they become "biffsquiggled" at any small obstacle, and the Queen calls them "rather dim-witted characters". By displaying and ridiculing their incompetence, Dahl communicates the message that heads of social institutions can not be trusted to act intelligently. Adults, representations of authority to young people, are also dealt with harshly in Dahl's books if they dare to cause trouble for his young heroes or heroines. This treatment can be seen when Miss Trunchbull, the dictatorial headmistress of Matilda's school, becomes the target of Matilda's telepathic powers, and soon after vanishes. This instance, and many others like it, reflect Dahl's attitude that "beastly people must be punished" (in Pendergast ). The introduction to the Children's Literature Review (1997) entry on Dahl explains, "The morality of his writings is simple, usually a matter of absolute good versus consummate evil--with no shades of gray--and those who fall into the latter category are sure to meet with a swift and horrible end". The exception to Dahl's portrayal of adult authority figures is "his tendency to see the family as a possible source of happiness and comfort" ( West ). In Dahl's books, with the exception of Matilda, family members are willing to support one another, even against the rest of the world. This is evident in the relationship between the main character and his grandmother in The Witches. For example, after the protagonist has been turned into a mouse and shares his plan to eliminate all the witches in England with his grandmother, her immediate reaction is, "We shall check it out immediately!. . .There's not a second to waste!". Therefore, not all adults are portrayed negatively, but any that abuse their authority over young people are severely punished. All of these factors that contribute to Dahl's implied criticism of society have generated contradictory responses. Dahl's Positive Impact on Adolescent Readers Many people believe that Roald Dahl's sociology may have a positive effect on readers. His view of society appeals to adolescents because it closely reflects their own perspective. First, as one critic suggests, he appeals to their "gut-punching and slapstick sense of humor" as well as their "crude sense of fun and delight in jokey phrases" ( Elkin ). Second, young adults often experience feelings of rebellion against the adults trying to socialize them, which is reflected by Dahl's overwhelmingly negative portrayal of adults ( Telgen ). The tendency of adolescents to increasingly turn away from parents and reject the authority of adults while they seek to establish unique identities is cited by Erik Erikson as characteristic of the social development of adolescents ( Slavin ). Another component of Dahl's philosophy that appeals to early adolescents is the belief that good triumphs, and evil is punished or destroyed. For example, when the child-eating giants are captured in The BFG, they are thrown into a pit where they are imprisoned for life, without attempts to befriend them or draft them for some useful purpose ( Rees ). Belief in the destruction or punishment of evil leads to a fourth aspect of Dahl's sociology that appeals to young people: the presence of physical violence as a means of retribution. Julia Marriage, a reviewer for The School Librarian, notes that while the violence might concern adults, "children are likely to take this in their stride, however regrettable that may be" ( Telgen ). These elements in Dahl's books reflect many adolescents' perspectives and provide an incentive for young people to read. Another positive feature of Dahl's works is that they encourage young people through positive presentations of their peers at a time when many are struggling with low self-esteem and looking to peers for their identity. Literary critic Linda Taylor notes that Dahl's main characters are known for their "wit, solitariness, independence, tenacity, intelligence and resourcefulness". This is especially significant for young women, because Dahl's female protagonists, like Matilda and Sophie, are independent and are not intimidated by authority figures ( West ). For example, Matilda does not allow herself to become a helpless victim by refusing to let her poor home life deny her a sense of self-worth ( West ). When her parents refuse to buy her books, she finds the public library on her own--at the age of four ( Matilda ). This independence, characteristic of all Dahl's main characters, allows them to exact revenge against their oppressors ( Telgen ). Matilda's revenge comes when her parents are going to force her to leave the country with them, but she manages to stay behind with her beloved teacher. However, Dahl also offers the encouragement that these young heroes and heroines--independent and resourceful though they may be--are able to find comfort and support from older allies ( West ). This is certainly the case in The Witches, when the main character, thinking about his grandmother, comments, "It doesn't matter who you are or what you look like so long as somebody loves you". The results of these positive elements in Dahl's works are books that appeal to and offer encouragement to young adults. Yet, these positive effects are viewed by some to be overshadowed by the possible negative effects of Dahl's view of society on adolescents. Critics' Objections to Dahl's Books Many challengers of Dahl's work object to his unrealistic portrayal of life. For example, David Rees , in an article published in Children's Literature in Education (1988), states, "The trouble with Dahl's world is that it is black and white--two-dimensional and unreal". Dahl's portrayal of life can be seen as a result of his overall philosophy of society. Since adults are not to be trusted, they are often portrayed as villains. Yet, Rees explains, "adults enter a child's world in a thousand different moral shapes and sizes". Very rarely does the average child encounter, as Sophie did, adults as evil as the flesh-eating giants, as incompetent as the heads of the armed forces, or as childlike as the BFG. There is much more variety--and many fewer extremes--in the types of adults that children may encounter. Another unrealistic aspect of Dahl's work is the concept that virtue and poverty go together, such as with Miss Honey, Matilda's adored teacher ( Telgen ). Some find this connection objectionable because it is a view consistent with Marxist philosophy, not one that supports free market capitalism. Adult readers also object to the unreality of Dahl's books because in life, everything is not fair, and good does not always win. Even when the hero of The Witches is permanently turned into a mouse, the reader is assured by the main character that, "I honestly don't feel especially bad about it. I don't even feel angry. In fact, I feel rather good" ( The Witches ). This lack of regret is the norm in Dahl's works instead of the exception, as some feel that it ought to be. Dahl has garnered further criticism for his portrayal of adults, which many challengers believe has a negative effect on his young readership. Throughout his work, authoritarian adults are frequently the victims of vicious revenge. However, what some find most objectionable is that adults are treated harshly even when they are innocent, such as when the main character's parents are killed in a car crash in The Witches ( Pendergast ). Critics Myra Pollack Sadker and David Miller Sadker have accused Dahl of ageism, and of conveying the message that "the needs and desires and opinions of old people are totally irrelevant and inconsequential". Some believe that presenting adolescents with such a view of adults, at an age when they are experiencing conflicting emotions about adults already, could adversely affect their relationships with older people. Commenting on this attitude, Bruno Bettelheim, author of The Uses of Enchantment , points out its limitations: There is a widespread refusal to let children know that the source of much that goes wrong in life is due to our very own nature--the propensity of all men for acting aggressively, asocially, selfishly, out of anger and anxiety. Instead, we want our children to believe that, inherently, all men are good. But children know that they are not always good; and often, even when they are, they would prefer not to be (in Hitchens ). It is this inclination to pretend that all people are good that Dahl challenges, and consequently his literature attracts opposition from many adult sources. The final major concern of critics of Dahl's works is his treatment of important issues, and how that treatment might affect his readers. This concern is especially relevant when considering The Witches, ninth on the list of the most frequently banned books in the 1990s ( Foerstel ). Dahl has been accused of sexism by feminists in England, and has been criticized for his negative portrayal of witches by witches' societies in the United States. These critics point to statements such as the following in making their case against Dahl: "But the fact remains that all witches are women. There is no such thing as a male witch" ( Telgen ; The Witches ). However, his critics often ignore the statement that follows the first: "On the other hand, a ghoul is always a male" ( The Witches ). When questioned about this issue, Dahl defended his work by pointing to the " 'lovely grandmother, who is one of the major characters in the story' " ( Telgen ). The grandmother's character is communicated to the reader early in the book when the main character says, " 'The fact that I am still here and able to speak to you. . .is due entirely to my wonderful grandmother' " ( The Witches ). Dahl claims that the previous accusations are unfounded because of the courage and wisdom that the grandmother displays, in addition to her encouragement of unorthodoxy ( Treglown ). He does not concern himself with the possibility that certain groups of adults might be offended, but concentrates on entertaining his readers. Dahl's treatment of the issue of child neglect has also been criticized. This view is based on the fact that Matilda is treated by her parents, at least from her perspective, "as nothing more than a scab. A scab is something you have to put up with until the time comes when you can pick it off and flick it away" ( Matilda ). One reviewer, Anna A. Flowers, concluded, "Child neglect countered by revenge, however funny and however justified, is just not a nice theme" (in Telgen ). However, Matilda could also be used as an avenue for discussion with students about child abuse and neglect. Nevertheless, because it leads to an unrealistic portrayal of life, a negative representation of adults, and a careless treatment of social issues, Dahl's sociology is viewed by many to be more harmful than beneficial to adolescents. Yet, as is often the case, controversy may lead directly to popularity. The very controversy caused by Roald Dahl's works for early adolescents has drawn millions of teens to his books and, subsequently, encouraged them to enjoy reading. These young people found in Roald Dahl something that they could not find anywhere else: an author with a view of society that was essentially identical to their own--distrustful of authority figures and firm in the belief that good will triumph. Concerning Dahl's popularity, the librarian of one middle school made this comment during the spring of 1997: "Roald Dahl's books are always on our reorder list, for copies of his books circulate so much they are worn in no time! The titles are always checked out and usually on reserve!" ( Crawford ). Roald Dahl's view of society, his contempt for corrupt authority figures, and his distrust of the system have made his works popular with adolescents. An expression of such values in the disguise of fantasy and humor is a rare find and one that young adolescents should be encouraged to make. Roald Dahl has certainly achieved his goal as an author because his books have provided a way for many young people to become readers. Sharon Royer is a senior, majoring in education, at Malone College (Canton, Ohio) and is indebted to Dr. Virginia Carroll of Kent State-Stark Campus for her to submit this article for publication. This is Ms. Royer's first publication in The ALAN Review. Works Cited Bulaong, Lia. The Roald Dahl Index 1996. [Online] Available http://www.tridel.com.ph/user/bula/rdahl.htm (not currently available), January 27, 1997. Dahl, Roald. The BFG. New York: Puffin Books, 1982. Dahl, Roald. Matilda. New York: Puffin Books, 1988. ---. The Witches. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1983. Crawford, Paula J. Letter from Jackson Memorial Middle School librarian to student (Massillon, Ohio). 26 March 1997. Elkin, Judith. "The BFG [book review]." The Times Literary Supplement 26 Nov. 1982: 1303. Foerstel, Herbert N. "The Most Frequently Banned Books in the 1990s." Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in Schools and Public Libraries. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. [Online] Available http://www.cs.cmu.edu/People/spok/most-banned.html , January 27, 1997. Hitchens, Christopher. "The Grimmest Tales." Vanity Fair Jan. 1994. Howard, Kristy. The Roald Dahl Home Page 1996. [Online] Available http://www.roalddahl.org/ , January 27, 1997. Pendergast, Tom. "Dahl, Roald." Contemporary Authors New Revision Series. Vol. 37. Ed. James G. Lesniak. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. Rees, David. "Dahl's Chickens: Roald Dahl." Children's Literature in Education, Fall 1988. Slavin, Robert E. Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. Telgen, Diane. (Ed). "Roald Dahl." Children's Literature Review. New York: Gale, 1997. Treglown, Jeremy. Roald Dahl: A Biography. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1994. West, Mark I. Roald Dahl. Twayne's English authors Series 492. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. Sharon Royer lives in North Canton, Ohio, where she is a student and prospective who enjoys studying young adult literature. Reference Citation: Royer, Sharon. (1998). "Roald Dahl." The ALAN Review, Volume 26, Number 1.


  1. Sociology & Literature

    historical sociology literature review

  2. (PDF) Book Review:The Rise of Historical Sociology. Dennis Smith

    historical sociology literature review

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    historical sociology literature review

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    historical sociology literature review

  5. Literature Review in Sociology Example

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  6. 😊 How to write a literature review for sociology. 10 Tips for Writing a Literature Review. 2019

    historical sociology literature review


  1. Berdache, the Holy Gay

  2. Dr. Erdem Yörük


  4. Historical Sociology

  5. Important Sociological Studies And Publications

  6. Historical sociology #historicalsociology #sociology #mains #answerwritingmains #youtubeshorts


  1. The Literature Review as an Exercise in Historical Thinking

    An evaluation rubric is presented that facilitates a progressive appraisal of the integration of history within a literature review. Ultimately, the article serves to stimulate the processes of thought, interpretation and rationalization when historically engaging with a body of literature.

  2. Doing a Literature Review in Sociology

    Doing a Literature Review in Sociology Advice from a sociologist and a librarian about how to do a literature review. Introduction A literature review helps you figure out what scholars, what studies, and what questions your project is in conversation with.

  3. Lit Reviews

    Writing Guidelines: Start with Writing for Sociology from the UC Berkeley Sociology Department—it's packed with great content! A great overview of the entire process from the Writing Center at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill. A piece from the blog Everyday Sociology on " How (and Why) to Write a Literature Review ".

  4. Literature Reviews

    A literature review provides an overview of previous research on a topic that critically evaluates, classifies, and compares what has already been published on a particular topic. It allows the author to synthesize and place into context the research and scholarly literature relevant to the topic.

  5. Literature Reviews

    A literature review is not a descriptive annotated bibliography. All works included in the review must be read, evaluated, and analyzed, and synthesized, meaning that relationships between the works must also be discussed. VCU Libraries Guide: How to Write a Literature Review Using a Synthesis Matrix

  6. Literature Reviews

    A way to give historical perspective on an issue and show how other researchers have addressed a problem An analysis of sources based on your own perspective on the topic Based on the most pertinent and significant research conducted in the field, both new and old A literature review is NOT:

  7. History of Sociology

    The history of sociology is both a traditional area of sociology itself and a part of the history of the social sciences as studied by intellectual historians and historians of science. The earliest writings on the subject were completed by sociologists attempting to construct a canon and a history of the discipline reaching into the distant ...

  8. Sociology Literature Review Examples That Really Inspire

    Sociology Literature Reviews Samples For Students 612 samples of this type Regardless of how high you rate your writing skills, it's always a worthy idea to check out an expertly written Literature Review example, especially when you're dealing with a sophisticated Sociology topic.

  9. Historical Literature Review

    Literature review There is ample evidence for enduring, widely held misperceptions in the US (Kuklinski et al. 2000; Lazer et al. 2018; Jerit and Zhao 2020). Misperceptions persist across several domains, including policy (Jerit and Barabas 2012), the evaluation of politicians (Nyhan and Reifler 2010; Miller et al. 2016),...

  10. Sociology Literature Review

    When you work on a historical literature review sociology, make sure to consider the following aspects: Focus on a specific period and make sure you can provide justification as to why you have chosen to focus on a specific point.

  11. Comparative-Historical Methodology

    The last decade featured the emergence of a significant and growing literature concerning comparative-historical methods. This literature offers methodological tools for causal and descriptive inference that go beyond the techniques currently available in mainstream statistical analysis. In terms of causal inference, new procedures exist for testing hypotheses about necessary and sufficient ...

  12. SOC 001: Introductory Sociology

    The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is significant to the work that you are carrying out. This overview identifies prominent research trends in addition to assessing the overall strengths and weaknesses of the existing research. Purpose of the Literature Review

  13. 120 Literature Review Topics for Inspired Research

    A literature review is an account of the scholarly works published on a topic. It is different from an annotated bibliography - and far more interesting at that. Instead of being just a list of summaries, a literature review synthesizes the information from all available sources in an overall relationship to your guiding concept.

  14. The Sociological Review: SAGE Journals

    The Sociological Review 2.743 5-Year Impact Factor: 3.630 JOURNAL HOMEPAGE SUBMIT PAPER The Sociological Review is one of the world's foremost journals for sociological inquiry in all traditions, with over 100 years of publishing high quality and innovative articles.

  15. Sociology and Literature: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    In recent years, a new branch of sociology came into existence called the sociology of literature.As it is concerned with the domain of literary study, the sociology of literature...

  16. Annual Review of Sociology

    AIMS AND SCOPE OF JOURNAL: The Annual Review of Sociology, in publication since 1975, covers the significant developments in the field of sociology. Topics covered in the journal include major theoretical and methodological developments as well as current research in the major subfields.

  17. Sociology

    sociology, a social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them. It does this by examining the dynamics of constituent parts of societies such as institutions, communities, populations, and gender, racial, or age groups.

  18. Literary History and Sociology

    bining history, literature, sociology, art history, and psychology. Lanson's major works in-clude Hommes et livres (1892), Histoire de la litterature francaise (1894), L'art de la ... of literary history to sociology, it is not because I believe I am well versed on that topic; on the con-trary, it appealed to me because it was new to me, ...

  19. Literature Review: Outline, Strategies, and Examples [2023]

    Nursing. In this nursing literature review example, the author notes the complexity and intricacy of managing chronic pain. The paper enumerates the current studies on the topic, its advantages, and disadvantages. In the synthesis, the author proposes a new and improved framework for chronic pain management. 3.

  20. Sociology Lens

    Sociology Lens builds upon the legacy of Journal of Historical Sociology, founded on the ideas of Philip Abrams and the conviction that historical and social studies ultimately have a common subject matter and can only benefit from the interchange of ideas and perspectives.

  21. ALAN v26n1

    Roald Dahl and Sociology 101 Sharon E. Royer Largely known as the author of James and the Giant Peach (1961) and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory (1964), Roald Dahl is also the author of three full-length works for early adolescents. ... The introduction to the Children's Literature Review (1997) entry on Dahl explains, ...