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Creating an MLA Bibliography
If you write a research paper in MLA format, then you will need to include a Works Cited page according to the current 9th edition of the Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines. Along with citing your sources within the body of your paper, you also need to include full citations of all sources at the end of your paper. The references in a bibliography are formatted in the same way as they would be in a Works Cited page. However, a bibliography refers to all works that you have consulted in your research, even if you did not use their information directly in your paper.
When you use the correct MLA bibliography format, it shows the reader what sources you consulted, makes finding your sources easier for the reader, and gives credibility to your work as a researcher and writer. This MLA sample paper will show you how the bibliography is incorporated into the rest of your paper. We also have a guide on APA reference pages , if you are following APA style in your paper.
Works cited or bibliography?
You may be wondering, what is a bibliography, and how is it different from a Works Cited page? The difference between the two is that while a bibliography refers to any source you consulted to write your research paper, a Works Cited page only includes full citations of the sources you quoted or paraphrased within your paper.
Typically, when someone says, “MLA bibliography” they really mean a Works Cited page, since the MLA format usually uses a Works Cited page instead of a bibliography.
A bibliography in MLA format may also refer to a Works Consulted page. If you used other sources that you did not directly quote or paraphrase within the paper, you will need to create a Works Consulted/Additional Resources page. A Works Consulted page starts on a separate page and follows the Works Cited page. It follows the same formatting guidelines as a Works Cited page, but you will use Works Consulted (or Additional Resources) as the title.
If you’re unsure of what to include in your citations list (works cited, works consulted, or both), ask your instructor. For the rest of this article, we will refer to this page as the MLA bibliography.
MLA bibliography formatting guidelines
These are the formatting rules you need to follow to create your bibliography according to MLA’s current edition guidelines. Your first page(s) will be your Works Cited page(s) and include the references that you directly refer to in your paper. Usually, this is all that is needed. If your instructor wants you to also include the works you consulted but did not include in your paper (more like a bibliography), then add Works Consulted or Additional Resources page for these sources.
- Your MLA Works Cited (and Works Consulted or Additional Resources pages) should begin on a separate page or pages at the end of your essay.
- Your essay should have a header on every page that includes your last name and the page number.
- The last name/page number header should be on the top right of each page with a ½ inch margin from the top of the page.
- One-inch margins.
- Title the page Works Cited (no italicization or quotation marks) unless otherwise instructed. Center the title. The top should look like this:
- Only center the Works Cited title; all citations should be left-justified.
- Double-space citations.
- Do not add an additional space between citations.
- After the first line, use a hanging indent of ½ inch on all additional lines of a citation. The hanging indent should look like this:
- Typically, this is the author’s last name, but sometimes it could be the title of the source if the author’s name is not available.
If you have a Works Consulted or Additional Resources page after your Works Cited page, format it in the same way, but with the title of Works Consulted or Additional Resources instead of Works Cited. Alternatively, your instructor may require a bibliography. If this is the case, all your sources, whether they are cited in your paper are not, are listed on the same page.
MLA citation guidelines
These are the rules you need to follow to create citations for an MLA bibliography. This section contains information on how to correctly use author names, punctuation, capitalization, fonts, page numbers, DOIs, and URLS in the citations on your MLA bibliography.
After the title Works Cited, the last name of the author of a source should be the first thing to appear on your page.
List the author’s last name followed by a comma, then the first name followed by the middle name or middle initial if applicable, without a comma separating the first and middle names. Add a period after the name.
Smith, Alexander McCall.
- Do not include titles such as Dr., Mrs., etc. or professional qualifications such as PhD, M.S., etc. with author names.
- Include suffixes such as Jr. or III after the author’s first name. Separate the first name and the suffix by a comma unless the suffix is a numeral. For example, to cite an author named John Smith, Jr., you would type Smith, John, Jr.
Sources with two authors
For a source with two authors, list the author names in your citation in the order they appear on the source, not alphabetically.
Type the last name of the first author listed on the source followed by a comma, then the first author’s first name followed by a comma. Then type the word “and” then list the second author’s first name and last name in the standard order. Follow the second name with a period.
Include middle names or initials and suffixes when applicable according to the guidelines for one author as listed above.
1st Author’s Last Name, First Name, and 2nd Author’s First Name Last Name.
Lutz, Lisa, and David Hayward.
Clark, Mary Higgins, and Alafair Burke.
Sources with three or more authors
For a source with three or more authors, only type the last and first name of the first author listed in the source, followed by a comma and the phrase et al., which is Latin for “and others.” Be sure to always place a period after the al in et al. but never after the et.
1st Author’s Last Name, First Name, et al.
Charaipotra, Sona, et al.
Williams, Beatriz, et al. All the Ways We Said Goodbye . HarperLuxe, 2020.
Organizations and corporations as authors
For sources with organizations or corporations listed as the author, type the name of the corporation in place of an author’s name. If the organization begins with an article like a, an, or the, it should be excluded in the Works Cited entry.
Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook . 2016.
*Note: If the organization is listed as both the author and the publisher, begin the citation with the title and include the organization’s name within the publisher field instead.
For a source with no author listed, simply omit the author’s name and begin the citation with the title of the source. Use the first letter of the title when considering alphabetical order in your MLA bibliography.
Use MLA title case when citing titles of sources.
- Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and subordinating conjunctions should be capitalized.
- Articles, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions should not be capitalized.
- Italicize the titles of larger works such as magazines and books. Also, italicize database and website names.
- Instead of italicization, use quotation marks around titles of shorter works such as poems, short stories, and articles.
- End all bibliography citations with a period.
Include page numbers in your full citations whenever possible. This helps the reader find the information you cited more quickly than if you just cited the entire source and lends more credibility to your argument. If you cite different pages from the same source within your paper, you should cite the entire source on your MLA bibliography instead of listing all of the page numbers you used.
When including page numbers in a citation, use the abbreviation p. to cite one page and the abbreviation pp. to cite multiple pages with a hyphen between the page numbers.
p. 25 or pp. 16-37
When citing page numbers in MLA, omit the first set of repeated digits.
pp. 365-69, not pp. 365-369
DOIs and URLs
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is used to locate and identify an online source. While URLs may change or web pages might be edited or updated, a DOI is permanent and therefore more useful in a source citation.
- Use a DOI (digital object identifier) whenever possible. Otherwise use a permalink or URL.
- DOIs should be formatted with “https://doi.org/” before the DOI number.
- Do not include “http://” or “https://” in your URLs.
- As either one will be the last part of your citation, place a period after the DOI or URL. (Note that this period is not part of the DOI or URL.)
Butarbutar, R, et al. “Analyzing of Puzzle Local Culture-Based in Teaching English for Young Learners.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , vol. 343, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208.
Since the previous 8th edition of the MLA Handbook was published, you do NOT need to list an accessed date for a stable source (e.g., online newspaper article, journal article, photograph, etc.). However, including an access date is good to include when a source does not have a publishing date, and some instructors will request that accessed dates be included for all sources.
If you do include an access date, here’s how to format it:
- Place it at the end of the citation without “http://” or “https://”.
- Write “Accessed” first, followed by the date accessed.
- The date accessed should be formatted as Day Month (abbreviated) Year.
Butarbutar, R, et al. “IOPscience.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , IOP Publishing, 1 Oct. 2019, iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208/meta. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.
Note: If you choose to list an accessed date after a DOI, the accessed date part of the citation will follow the period after the DOI and will end with a period at the end of the citation
Butarbutar, R, et al. “Analyzing of Puzzle Local Culture-Based in Teaching English for Young Learners.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science , vol. 343, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/343/1/012208. Accessed 8 Oct. 2020.
MLA 8 th edition vs MLA 9 th edition
The 9 th edition of the MLA handbook re-introduces guidelines regarding paper formatting (which were not present in the 8 th edition). The guidance in the 9 th addition is consistent with the guidance in previous editions and expands on the formatting of tables, figures/illustrations, and lists. The 9 th edition also offers new guidance in areas like annotated bibliographies, inclusive language, and footnotes/endnotes.
Many of the differences between the 8 th edition and 9 th edition have to do with the formatting of the core elements in reference list entries. Some of the main changes include:
Written by Grace Turney , freelance writer and artist. Grace is a former librarian and has a Master’s degree in Library Science and Information Technology.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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An MLA bibliography is similar to the Works Cited list that you include at the end of your paper. The only difference between a Works Cited list and a bibliography is that for the former, you need to include the entries for only the sources you cited in the text, whereas for the latter you can also include the sources you consulted to write your paper but didn’t directly cite in your writing. MLA generally prefers Works Cited lists to bibliographies.
If your instructor advises you to create an MLA bibliography, follow the same guidelines you would follow for creating an MLA Works Cited list.
The bibliography list appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes if they are present.
All margins (top, bottom, left, and right) should be set at 1 inch.
Write the running head in the top right of the page at 0.5 inch from the top. Use the running head “Surname Page #.”
The font should be clear enough to read. Use Times New Roman font of size 12 points.
Entries should be double-spaced. If any entry runs over more than a line, indent the subsequent lines of the entry 0.5 inch from the left margin.
Bibliographic entries are arranged alphabetically according to the first item in each entry.
Title your bibliography as “Bibliography.”
Braidotti, Rosi. The Posthuman . Polity, 2013.
Brisini, Travis. “Phytomorphizing Performance: Plant Performance in an Expanded Field.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 39, 2019, pp. 1–2.
Riccio, Thomas. “Reimagining Yup’ik and Inupiat Performance.” Northwest Theatre Review , vol. 12, no. 1, 1999, pp. 1–30.
General rules for creating an annotated bibliography
The annotation is given after the source entry and is generally about 100-150 words in length. The annotation should be indented 1 inch from the left margin to distinguish it from the hanging indent within the citation entry.
The annotation, in general, should be written as short phrases. However, you may use full sentences as well.
The annotation for each source is usually no longer than one paragraph. However, if multiple paragraphs are included, indent the second and subsequent paragraphs without any extra line space between them.
The annotation provides basic information about the source, but does not include details about the source, quotes from the author, etc. The information can be descriptive (by generally describing what the source covers) or evaluative (by evaluating the source’s usefulness to the argument in your paper).
Example annotated bibliography
The below is an example of an annotated bibliography:
Morritt, Robert D. Beringia: Archaic Migrations into North America . Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2011.
The author studies the migration of cultures from Asia to North America. The connection between the North American Athabaskan language family and Siberia is presented, together with comparisons and examinations of the implications of linguistics from anthropological, archaeological, and folklore perspectives. This book explores the origins of the earliest people in the Americas, including Siberian, Dene, and Navajo Creation myths; linguistic comparisons between Siberian Ket Navajo and Western Apache; and comparisons between indigenous groups that appear to share the same origin.
MLA Citation Examples
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Writing a Bibliography: MLA Format
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA). For more information on the MLA format, see MLA Style Center .
Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited . Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An , or The .
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics ?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All MLA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization - capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work (e.g., vol. for volume , ed. for editor ) except when these designations follow a period. Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher's name ( Random instead of Random House ).
Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle. Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title. Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works (e.g., "Memories of Childhood." American Short Stories ). Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs.
Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America . Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination . New York: Random, 1992.
Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes . New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader's Guide to Science Fiction . New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979.
Toomer, Jean. Cane . Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton, 1988.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. "Falcon and Falconry." World Book Encyclopedia . 1980.
Tobias, Richard. "Thurber, James." Encyclopedia Americana . 1991 ed.
Levinson, David, and Melvin M. Ember, eds. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. 4 vols. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. Print.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Hall, Trish. "IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why." New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
Kalette, Denise. "California Town Counts Down to Big Quake." USA Today 9 21 July 1986: sec. A: 1.
Kanfer, Stefan. "Heard Any Good Books Lately?" Time 113 21 July 1986: 71-72.
Trillin, Calvin. "Culture Shopping." New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Devitt, Terry. "Lightning injures four at music festival." The Why? Files . 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <http://whyfiles.org /137lightning/index.html>.
Dove, Rita. "Lady Freedom among Us." The Electronic Text Center . Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu /subjects/afam.html>.
Lancashire, Ian. Homepage. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080 /~ian/>.
Levy, Steven. "Great Minds, Great Ideas." Newsweek 27 May 2002. 10 June 2002 <http://www.msnbc.com /news/754336.asp>.
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Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian
Sample bibliography: mla.
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Government Publications
- Other Materials
- In Text Citations
- Sample Bibliography: APA
- Sample Bibliography: Turabian
- Creating an Annotated Bibliography
The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name.
Black Hearts Bleed Red . Directed by Jeri Cain Rossi. Mary Magdalene Films, 1992.
Desmond, John. "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, vol. 56, no. 2, 2004, pp. 129-37. Literature Online.
Dowell, B. "The Moment of Grace in the Fiction of Flannery O'Connor." College English, vol. 27, 1965, pp. 235-9.
Evans, Robert C. "Poe, O'Connor, and the Mystery of the Misfit." Flannery O'Connor Bulletin, vol. 25, 1997, pp. 1-12.
Fike, Matthew. "The Timothy Allusion in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature , vol. 52, no. 4, 2000, pp. 311-9. Literature Online.
Gentry, Marshall Bruce. "He Would Have Been a Good Man: Compassion and Meanness in Truman Capote and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor's Radical Reality . Eds. Jan Nordby Gretlund and Karl-Heinz Westarp. U of South Carolina P, 2006, pp. 42-55.
A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Stories . Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, 2008.
Hewitt, Avis. "'Someone to Shoot Her Every Minute of Her Life': Maternity and Violent Death in Helena María Viramontes and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor Review, vol. 4, 2006, pp. 12-26.
Keetley, Dawn. "'I Forgot What I Done': Repressed Anger and Violent Fantasy in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." 'On the Subject of the Feminist Business': Re-Reading Flannery O'Connor, edited by Teresa Caruso. Peter Lang, 2004, pp. 74-93.
Link, Alex. "Means, Meaning, and Mediated Space in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South , vol. 44, no. 4, 2007, pp. 125-38.
Shinn, T. J. "Flannery O'Connor and the Violence of Grace." Contemporary Literature, 1968, pp. 58-73.
Sloan, Gary. "Mystery, Magic, and Malice: O'Connor and the Misfit." Journal of the Short Story in English , vol. 30, 1998, pp. 73-83.
Tsai, Hsiu-chih. "Violence as the Road to Transformation: O'Connor's 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." NTU Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 13, 2004, pp. 59-98.
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- A Research Guide
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- How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style
How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style
- The name of the author, or authors
- The full title of the source material
- The name of the publisher
- The date of publication
- The page number of the source material
You definitely have to know the exact bibliography meaning in a paper, because it is too easy to confuse a bibliography with a works cited. The two are similar, but they are not the same. So what’s the difference?
Bibliography Vs. Works Cited
It was mentioned previously that a definition of a bibliography states it is a completed listing of every source used during the research and creation of a paper, whether the source was cited in the text or not. This is not the case with a Works Cited. A Works Cited includes only the material that was cited in the text.
There is another type of bibliography that is worth mentioning – the annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography definition is, for all intents and purposes, identical to a standard bibliography; however, there is one key difference. The author, publisher and page information is concluded with a short description of the actual content or quality of the source used.
If you ask a question of how to do a bibliography correctly, you should start with the following simple thing which is the most important. In order to gather all of the information necessary to draft a bibliography, you should keep a list of EVERY book, website, magazine or periodical that you read in preparation for your paper. Eventually, this list will comprise your bibliography.
While you are writing down (or even photocopying) the information for your source material, remember to include:
The information that you need to create your bibliography will not always be easy to find. Depending on the type of source material you are using, you might have to do some investigative work to gather everything you need. If you are not sure where to look, try here:
- The article heading
- The front page, or editorial page of a newsprint
- The table of contents of a journal
- The header or footer of a webpage
- The Contact or About Us page of a webpage
Now that you’ve gathered all of the necessary information, you are ready to create your preliminary bibliography.
The type of bibliography you create will depend largely on the type of citation or writing style that you are following. For example purposes, we will explore APA vs MLA. The two are similar in many ways, but there are some major differences as well.
Here is a chart explaining the differences between the two styles that are important when you have to choose between APA or MLA as a whole, and not just specifically as they relate to bibliographies.
However, before pressing forward, here is a handy checklist that you can use to make sure that you are gathering all of the information needed to create a bibliography, and that a great one! In the proceeding pages, you will find detailed information regarding how to properly write and format the bibliographical sources based on the specifics of the source material. Ie: Is there more than one author? Did the material come from a blog? Did the source material have multiple editors?
Note: In order to develop a strong bibliography, you should have answered yes to all of these questions.
- Article in an encyclopedia with an author
Please note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.
Format for entries
A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent the second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.
In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation .
When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.
You may always refer to the experts, just follow our writing services review:
- Book with one author or editor
- Book with two authors or editors
- Book with three authors or editors
- Book with more than three authors or editors
- Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
- Book with no author or editor stated
- Book with one author, translated by another
- Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
- Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
- Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
- Book, movie or film review
- CD-ROM, DVD
- Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
- Definition from a dictionary
- Film, movie
- Government publication
- Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
- Letter, editorial
- Musical composition
- Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
- Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
- Radio, Television
- Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
- Software on floppy disk
- Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
- Unpublished dissertations, theses
1. Book with one author or editor:
Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.
Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004.
Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Hyperion, 2005.
Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001.
Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999.
—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses )
Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999.
(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred )
Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart )
Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995.
(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars )
Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998.
2. Book with two authors or editors:
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999.
Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.
Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors:
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square, 1992.
3. Book with three authors or editors:
Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.
Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.
Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.
4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. or, Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003.
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. or, Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: 2005.
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994.
O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.
Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.
6. Book with no author or editor stated:
Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.
The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
7. Book with one author, translated by another:
Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:
Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.
9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:
“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed.
“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed.
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:
If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.
Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.
“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.
“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.
“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star 25 Nov. 2004: A18.
“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.
Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but added by you.
An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.
The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.
Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.
Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 2001: 36.
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.
Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.
Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.
Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News 15 Jan. 2006: A6.
Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.
Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.
Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel Fall 2004: 102-111.
Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 18-22.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.
Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.
Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. or use “et al.”: Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):
Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.
Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.
IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7.
Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.
15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:
Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.
16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: Springbank, 1994.
17. Book, movie or film review:
May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.
Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.
Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, 1986, 31-44.
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: 629-30.
Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.
Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.
Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
18. CD-ROM, DVD:
A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 .
Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 .
Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.
LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.
YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: Tele-Direct, 1998.
19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:
Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065 197653951002.
20. Definition from a dictionary:
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language . Canadian ed. 1988.
21. Film, Movie:
Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.
Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.
One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.
Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.
22. Government publication:
Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.
United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: GPO, 2000.
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.
In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.
United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as: Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193.
For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:
a. Internet citation for an advertisement
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail
h. Internet citation for an online government publication
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site
k. Internet citation for a software download
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined.
4) Editor of Project.
5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.
7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).
9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.
If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement:
IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003.
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005.
Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005.
Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 .
Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005.
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004.
Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
Note: If you are citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006.
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica . 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005.
“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003.
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:
“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003.
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003.
Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004.
“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005.
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005 LII Team < [email protected] >.
PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. 10 Oct. 2005.
h. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005.
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005.
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:
Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005.
Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005.
O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005.
Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006.
Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006.
Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006.
Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005.
k. Internet citation for a software download:
It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004.
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:
Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005.
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005.
Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006.
Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.
Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.
Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.
Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.
26. Letter, editorial:
An editorial: Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor: Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor: Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection: Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.
27. Map or Chart:
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.
Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.
“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.
Read also: How to do a research paper on your own?
28. Musical composition:
Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined. 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Träumerei , op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.
Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date when artwork was created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.
Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.
The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome.
Rude, François. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date when artwork was created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. 232.
Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.
Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.
Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31.
Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226.
Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 408.
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. São Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. 22 Mar. 2003.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.
“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. 27 Sept. 1988.
Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 26 Oct. 1999.
31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002.
The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 20 Apr. 2002.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.
The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.
32. Radio, television:
Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.
Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.
“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:
Components: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Zomba, 1999.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, n.d. or, Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.
34. Software on floppy disk
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. IBM, 1998.
35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Nettwerk, 1994.
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar ó n. Based on novel by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004.
Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996.
Kicking & Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, 1997.
The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.
36.Unpublished dissertations, theses
Useful information: Professional dissertation writing service will provide you with high-quality papers from Ph.D. writers.
State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress . Diss. U of Washington, 1985.
Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma . PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.
Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?
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MLA Style Guide, 8th & 9th Editions: MLA Annotated Bibliography
- Works Cited entries: What to Include
- Title of source
- Title of container
- Publication date
- Supplemental Elements
- Book with Personal Author(s)
- Book with Organization as Author
- Book with Editor(s)
- Parts of Books
- Government Publication
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Multivolume Works
- Newspaper Article
- Other Formats
- Websites, Social Media, and Email
- About In-text Citations
- In-text Examples
- How to Paraphrase and Quote
- Citing Poetry
- Formatting Your MLA Paper
- Formatting Your Works Cited List
- MLA Annotated Bibliography
- MLA 9th Edition Quick Guide
- Submit Your Paper for MLA Style Review
- Updated MLA Ninth Edition Annotated Bibliography Template
This template includes a space to add your topic and thesis statement as this is preferred for the annotated bibliography assignments in ENC courses taught at IRSC. Always follow your professor's instructions over any instructions on this LibGuide or inside the MLA Handbook.
Your professor may ask that you create an annotated bibliography in MLA style. An annotated bibliography is similar to the Works Cited page found at the end of a paper. The paper formatting is the same but instead of following a full research paper, the student will write a brief annotation for each source which will directly follow the source's Works Cited entry. The annotations contain descriptive or evaluative comments about your sources. Annotations should be short, typically no longer than one paragraph. Indent the annotation an inch from the start of the entry. Each citation should adhere to MLA guidelines. The title might be 'Annotated Bibliography' or 'Annotated List of Works Cited'.
Below is an example of an annotated bibliography in MLA style. You are welcome to use the template linked above to get you started with the correct formatting.
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- Next: MLA 9th Edition Quick Guide >>
- Last Updated: Sep 15, 2022 11:57 AM
- URL: https://irsc.libguides.com/mla
MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): Annotated Bibliography
- What Kind of Source Is This?
- Books, eBooks & Pamphlets
- Book Reviews
- Class Handouts, Presentations, and Readings
- Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
- Government Documents
- Images, Artwork, Charts, Graphs & Tables
- Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Primary Sources
- Religious Texts
- Social Media
- Videos & DVDs
- In-Text Citation
- Works Quoted in Another Source
- No Author, No Date etc.
- Works Cited List & Sample Paper
- Annotated Bibliography
- Powerpoint Presentations
Annotated Bibliography Template
- MLA Annotated Bibliography Template
This sample annotated bibliography shows you the structure you should use to write an MLA annotated bibliography and gives examples of evaluative and summary annotations.
It can be used as a template to set up your assignment.
What is an Annotated Bibliography?
Useful Links for Annotated Bibliographies
- Annotated Bibliographies Overview of purpose and form of annotated bibliographies from the Purdue OWL.
- Annotated Bibliography Sample Sample annotations in an MLA and an APA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
- Annotated Bibliography Breakdown An example of an MLA annotated bibliography. From the Purdue OWL.
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.
Types of Annotations
A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what the document discusses, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description.
An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation.
Writing an Evaluative Annotation
- Cite the source using MLA style.
- Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
- Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
- Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
- Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
- Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
- Identify the observations or conclusions of the author.
Basic Tips on Writing and Formatting
- Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
- Start with the same format as a regular Works Cited list.
- All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
- If your list of citations is especially long, you can organize it by topic.
- Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
- Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
Sample Evaluative Annotation
London, Herbert. “Five Myths of the Television Age.” Television Quarterly , vol. 10, no. 1, Mar. 1982, pp. 81-69. Herbert London, the Dean of Journalism at New York University and author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: “seeing is believing”; “a picture is worth a thousand words”; and “satisfaction is its own reward.” London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He does not refer to any previous works on the topic. London’s style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London’s points, but does not explore their implications leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.
"How to Write Annotated Bibliographies." Memorial University Libraries , www.library.mun.ca/researchtools/guides/writing/annotated_bibl/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
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- Last Updated: Jan 10, 2023 12:04 PM
- URL: https://columbiacollege-ca.libguides.com/MLA9
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
MLA Formatting and Style Guide
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
The following overview should help you better understand how to cite sources using MLA 9 th edition, including how to format the Works Cited page and in-text citations.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in MLA. See also our MLA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel .
Creating a Works Cited list using the ninth edition
MLA is a style of documentation that may be applied to many different types of writing. Since texts have become increasingly digital, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices.
Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves. This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable.
Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.
Here is an overview of the process:
When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. These are the general pieces of information that MLA suggests including in each Works Cited entry. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:
- Title of source.
- Title of container,
- Other contributors,
- Publication date,
Each element should be followed by the corresponding punctuation mark shown above. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation (such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers) depending on the type of source. In the current version, punctuation is simpler (only commas and periods separate the elements), and information about the source is kept to the basics.
Begin the entry with the author’s last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period.
Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. Routledge, 1994.
Title of source
The title of the source should follow the author’s name. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks.
A book should be in italics:
Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House . MacMurray, 1999.
An individual webpage should be in quotation marks. The name of the parent website, which MLA treats as a "container," should follow in italics:
Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.*
A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:
Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature , vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.
A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks. The name of the album should then follow in italics:
Beyoncé. "Pray You Catch Me." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.
*The MLA handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.
Title of container
The eighth edition of the MLA handbook introduced what are referred to as "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container. The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.
Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.
The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes.
“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.
The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works.
Wise, DeWanda. “Why TV Shows Make Me Feel Less Alone.” NAMI, 31 May 2019, www.nami.org/Blogs/NAMI-Blog/May-2019/How-TV-Shows-Make-Me-Feel-Less-Alone . Accessed 3 June 2019.
In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix . You might have found the electronic version of a journal on JSTOR. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used.
“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation , season 2, episode 21, NBC , 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/70152031?trackId=200256157&tctx=0%2C20%2C0974d361-27cd-44de-9c2a-2d9d868b9f64-12120962.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal , vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.
In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc. If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation.
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard , Vintage-Random House, 1988.
Woolf, Virginia. Jacob’s Room . Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc., 2008.
If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation.
The Bible . Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.
Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.
If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009.
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.
The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public. If there is more than one publisher, and they are all are relevant to your research, list them in your citation, separated by a forward slash (/).
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006.
Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System . American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.
Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation . Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.
Note : The publisher’s name need not be included in the following sources: periodicals, works published by their author or editor, websites whose titles are the same name as their publisher, websites that make works available but do not actually publish them (such as YouTube , WordPress , or JSTOR ).
The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your writing. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.
In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. Below is a general citation for this television episode:
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer , created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999 .
However, if you are discussing, for example, the historical context in which the episode originally aired, you should cite the full date. Because you are specifying the date of airing, you would then use WB Television Network (rather than Mutant Enemy), because it was the network (rather than the production company) that aired the episode on the date you’re citing.
“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999 .
You should be as specific as possible in identifying a work’s location.
An essay in a book or an article in a journal should include page numbers.
Adiche, Chimamanda Ngozi. “On Monday of Last Week.” The Thing around Your Neck, Alfred A. Knopf, 2009, pp. 74-94 .
The location of an online work should include a URL. Remove any "http://" or "https://" tag from the beginning of the URL.
Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious Diseases , vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009.
When citing a physical object that you experienced firsthand, identify the place of location.
Matisse, Henri. The Swimming Pool. 1952, Museum of Modern Art, New York .
The ninth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of optional elements that can be included in a documented source at the writer’s discretion.
Date of original publication:
If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.
Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.
City of publication:
The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.
Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions . Boston, 1863.
Date of access:
When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.
Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009.
As mentioned above, while the MLA handbook recommends including URLs when you cite online sources, you should always check with your instructor or editor and include URLs at their discretion.
A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology , vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1002/tox.20155.
Creating in-text citations using the previous (eighth) edition
Although the MLA handbook is currently in its ninth edition, some information about citing in the text using the older (eighth) edition is being retained. The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the Works Cited list. For the most part, an in-text citation is the author’s name and the page number (or just the page number, if the author is named in the sentence) in parentheses :
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
Again, your goal is to attribute your source and provide a reference without interrupting your text. Your readers should be able to follow the flow of your argument without becoming distracted by extra information.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA
The Purdue OWL . Purdue U Writing Lab, 2019.
Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL , Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date.
The new OWL no longer lists most pages' authors or publication dates. Thus, in most cases, citations will begin with the title of the resource, rather than the developer's name.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, Purdue U Writing Lab. Accessed 18 Jun. 2018.
The references in a bibliography are formatted in the same way as they would be in a Works Cited page. However, a bibliography refers to all works that you have
Format: Author's last name, first name (if available). "Title of work within a project or database." Title of site, project, or
Sample Bibliography: MLA ... The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name
MLA Format Heading & Title · Your name should be on the left. · The title of the paper is centered. · Include a header for the running name and
A bibliography, by definition, is a detailed listing of the books, journals, magazines, or online sources that an author has used in researching and writing
The Politics Department has adopted the MLA citation format for in-text or ... citation and a detailed reference list (bibliography) at.
An annotated bibliography is similar to the Works Cited page found at the end of a paper. The paper formatting is the same but instead of
An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks
Basic rules · Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. · Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works
Begin the entry with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name, as presented in the work. End this element with a period. Bhabha