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How to Cite Something in MLA Format
MLA formatting refers to the writing style guide produced by the Modern Language Association. If you’re taking a class in the liberal arts, you usually have to follow this format when writing papers. In addition to looking at MLA examples, it helps to know the basics of the style guide.
MLA requires parenthetical citations within the document. This means you must include source information inside parentheses placed after a quotation or paraphrase from a source. Each parenthetical citation must have the page number where you found the information you used. It may also have the author’s or creator’s name. Do not use a comma to separate the name and the date.
The format for in-text citations depends on the format of the source material. For print material like books and journals, you need the author’s name and publication date. If the source has two authors, use and to join them and the term “et al.” if it has more than two authors. You can also reference the authors in the document and include only the page number in parentheses.
Citations for Nonprint Material
If you use nonprint materials as sources, you have to cite them. However, you don’t have to include page numbers with the in-text citations. You do have to include information like the name of the work, the creator’s name and the year of publication on the Works Cited page.
When you complete the Work Cited page, each source requires additional information. For images, you need to include contributors, the reproduction number and URL where you located the image online. Movies must list the director’s name and distributor. A TV series needs the episode title and number, series title, season number and network. Pieces of music should include the title of the track and album and the record label.
Works Cited List
When you use MLA format, you must have a Works Cited page that lists all of the sources you used for the paper. This page goes at the end of the document on a separate page. You list all of the sources in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. Make sure the page is double-spaced and that you follow the specific guidelines for formatting each entry.
If you don’t have access to printed MLA style guides or don’t understand how to format your sources, you can turn to a citation generator. There are several citation generators available online for free or as part of a subscription service. You can also find them in word processing programs.
To use a citation generator, you enter information about each source. The program automatically formats the sources for the works cited page. You can also select the places in the document to add in-text citations.
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Writing a Bibliography: MLA Format
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA). For more information on the MLA format, see MLA Style Center .
Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited . Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An , or The .
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics ?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All MLA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization - capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work (e.g., vol. for volume , ed. for editor ) except when these designations follow a period. Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher's name ( Random instead of Random House ).
Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle. Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title. Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works (e.g., "Memories of Childhood." American Short Stories ). Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs.
Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America . Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination . New York: Random, 1992.
Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes . New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader's Guide to Science Fiction . New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979.
Toomer, Jean. Cane . Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton, 1988.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. "Falcon and Falconry." World Book Encyclopedia . 1980.
Tobias, Richard. "Thurber, James." Encyclopedia Americana . 1991 ed.
Levinson, David, and Melvin M. Ember, eds. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. 4 vols. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. Print.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Hall, Trish. "IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why." New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
Kalette, Denise. "California Town Counts Down to Big Quake." USA Today 9 21 July 1986: sec. A: 1.
Kanfer, Stefan. "Heard Any Good Books Lately?" Time 113 21 July 1986: 71-72.
Trillin, Calvin. "Culture Shopping." New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Devitt, Terry. "Lightning injures four at music festival." The Why? Files . 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <http://whyfiles.org /137lightning/index.html>.
Dove, Rita. "Lady Freedom among Us." The Electronic Text Center . Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu /subjects/afam.html>.
Lancashire, Ian. Homepage. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080 /~ian/>.
Levy, Steven. "Great Minds, Great Ideas." Newsweek 27 May 2002. 10 June 2002 <http://www.msnbc.com /news/754336.asp>.
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Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian
Sample bibliography: mla.
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Government Publications
- Other Materials
- In Text Citations
- Sample Bibliography: APA
- Sample Bibliography: Turabian
- Creating an Annotated Bibliography
The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name.
Black Hearts Bleed Red . Directed by Jeri Cain Rossi. Mary Magdalene Films, 1992.
Desmond, John. "Flannery O'Connor's Misfit and the Mystery of Evil." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature, vol. 56, no. 2, 2004, pp. 129-37. Literature Online.
Dowell, B. "The Moment of Grace in the Fiction of Flannery O'Connor." College English, vol. 27, 1965, pp. 235-9.
Evans, Robert C. "Poe, O'Connor, and the Mystery of the Misfit." Flannery O'Connor Bulletin, vol. 25, 1997, pp. 1-12.
Fike, Matthew. "The Timothy Allusion in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature , vol. 52, no. 4, 2000, pp. 311-9. Literature Online.
Gentry, Marshall Bruce. "He Would Have Been a Good Man: Compassion and Meanness in Truman Capote and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor's Radical Reality . Eds. Jan Nordby Gretlund and Karl-Heinz Westarp. U of South Carolina P, 2006, pp. 42-55.
A Good Man is Hard to Find and Other Stories . Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic, 2008.
Hewitt, Avis. "'Someone to Shoot Her Every Minute of Her Life': Maternity and Violent Death in Helena María Viramontes and Flannery O'Connor." Flannery O'Connor Review, vol. 4, 2006, pp. 12-26.
Keetley, Dawn. "'I Forgot What I Done': Repressed Anger and Violent Fantasy in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." 'On the Subject of the Feminist Business': Re-Reading Flannery O'Connor, edited by Teresa Caruso. Peter Lang, 2004, pp. 74-93.
Link, Alex. "Means, Meaning, and Mediated Space in 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." Southern Quarterly: A Journal of the Arts in the South , vol. 44, no. 4, 2007, pp. 125-38.
Shinn, T. J. "Flannery O'Connor and the Violence of Grace." Contemporary Literature, 1968, pp. 58-73.
Sloan, Gary. "Mystery, Magic, and Malice: O'Connor and the Misfit." Journal of the Short Story in English , vol. 30, 1998, pp. 73-83.
Tsai, Hsiu-chih. "Violence as the Road to Transformation: O'Connor's 'A Good Man is Hard to Find'." NTU Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 13, 2004, pp. 59-98.
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / MLA Citation Examples
MLA Citation Examples
Welcome to the EasyBib MLA Citation Guide! If you’ve landed on this page, you’re probably wondering what MLA citing is, or perhaps you need help creating an MLA citation or two. This page is fully stocked with the information you need to be an MLA citing machine.
While EasyBib isn’t officially affiliated with the Modern Language Association, we’ve included page numbers throughout this guide to demonstrate that the information on this page reflects the content from the official Handbook . Click here to learn more about the 9th edition of the handbook.
If you’re wondering, “What is MLA?” and are in need of some background information on the organization, take a peek at the Modern Language Association ’s site. You’ll find tons of handy information related to referencing and writing mechanics.
Here’s a run-through of everything this page includes:
What’s an MLA citation?
- 3 or more authors
Using the EasyBib MLA Citation Generator
- Edited book
- Chapter in an edited book
- E-book from the Internet
- Online journal article
- Print journal article
- Online magazine
- Print magazine
- Online newspaper
- Print newspaper
- Online image
- Print image
- Images viewed in real life
- Online video
- Streamed show
- Streamed music
- Sheet music
- Social media examples
Any time a piece of information from another source is added into your MLA style paper, you must create two citations, or references, to show the reader where the information originated. One reference is placed in the written text of the paper, and the other is placed at the end of the project.
The reference that is placed in the written text of the paper, called an in-text citation , comes immediately next to any borrowed information. It provides a glimpse for the reader to see who the original author is and where the information was found. When creating in-text citations, it’s also important to know how to format page numbers in MLA .
Here’s an MLA example:
Lark knows how to handle life on the river: “I try to count the seconds before I hear the thunder, so I know how far the storm is, but I’m too rattled” (Wingate 12).
Check out the full EasyBib MLA in-text & parenthetical citations guide to learn more about styling these types of references.
The other type of reference, which we’ll call a full reference , is placed at the end of the project. It includes enough information about the source so the reader can locate the source themselves, if they choose to do so, whether online or at their library.
Here’s the full reference, which corresponds to the in-text citation above:
Wingate, Lisa. Before We Were Yours . Random House, 2017.
Notice that the beginning of the reference in the text, Wingate, corresponds with the first word in the full reference. This is very important! It allows for the reader to find the full reference on the MLA works cited page.
Wondering if you can create MLA footnotes instead? You sure can! However, in this style, it’s more common to use references in the text of your paper.
If it’s help with an APA in-text citation or APA parenthetical citation you’re after, you’re in luck! Our comprehensive guides are here for you!
Various types of styles
There are many different ways to style references, and following MLA’s guidelines are just one way to do so. Two other well-known and popular styles to structure references include APA and Chicago.
Your teacher probably told you which style to create your references in. If you were told to use a different style, such as APA or Chicago, here are some links to help you get started.
The EasyBib APA citations guide has everything you need to learn how to create references in this style. Or, if you’re looking for help with structuring the paper itself (spacing, font, margins, etc.), check out the EasyBib APA format page. If you need help with more styles , EasyBib always has your back, with thousands of styles available!
A Standard Formula
The great thing about MLA citations is that full references follow one standard formula. So, it doesn’t matter if you’re attempting to reference a book, newspaper article, or Facebook post, as almost every source type is structured the same way, following an MLA template.
Here’s a step-by-step guide that gives you the key to the secret sauce:
1. Who created the source?
Is your source written or created by an individual? If yes, place their name in reverse order, with a period at the end, like this:
If there are multiple individuals responsible for the work, place them in the order they’re shown on the source
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.
Owens, Michael, and Scott Abrahams.
Three or More Authors
According to page 112 of the Handbook , only include the first listed author’s name, in reverse order, followed by a comma, and omit all other names. Replace the additional names with the Latin phrase, et al.
Last Name, First Name, et al.
Preston, Rebekah, et al.
If an organization is responsible for the work, you may include the organization’s name. However, in many cases, an organization is listed as BOTH the author and publisher. When this is the case, you can leave the author out, start the citation with the source’s title, and include the organization name only as the publisher.
Dinosaur Facts . American Museum of Natural History, www.amnh.org/dinosaurs/dinosaur-facts.
2. What’s the title?
Sometimes there are two titles related to your source, and sometimes there’s only one.
If the source you’re referencing has two title parts, place the smaller part in quotation marks, followed by a period, and the larger part in italics, followed by a comma.
Think about the song, “Beat It,” by Michael Jackson. “Beat It” is the title of the song, but there’s another title too. The title of the album! The title of the album is Thriller.
Here’s how the two titles would be structured:
“Beat It.” Thriller ,
The album, Thriller , serves as the “container” for the song itself.
The term “ container ” is used extensively throughout the official guide. In addition to songs and albums, other types of titles and their containers can include:
- “Web Page Articles.” Websites ,
- “Book Chapters.” Titles of Books ,
- “Journal Articles.” Titles of Journals ,
…plus many more!
To make things even more interesting, there are times when there’s more than one container! Think about an episode of a television show. The television series is the first container, but if you watched it on a streaming site, the streaming site would be the second container.
If there are two containers , the second one is added at the end of the reference.
“The Miseducation of Lisa Simpson.” Performances by John Legend, Chrissy Teigen, and Zach Woods. The Simpsons , season 31, episode 12, Fox Broadcasting, 16 Feb. 2020. Hulu , www.hulu.com/simpsons/miseducation.
Let’s break that down:
- Container 2 : Hulu
There are times when two titles aren’t included in a reference. If, instead of referencing the song “Beat It,” you’re referencing the entire album, exclude the quotation marks. Only include the one title and place it in italics, without quotation marks.
Here’s how you would reference the entire album, rather than one song on the album:
Jackson, Michael. Thriller . Produced by Quincy Jones, Westlake Recording Studios, 1982.
For more on titles and containers, head to pages 134-145 of the official Handbook .
If you decide to use EasyBibs citation generator MLA creator, we’ll help you structure the titles and containers in just a few clicks!
3. Any other contributors?
If there are any other people, besides the author, who had a significant role, and you feel it would be helpful to include their name in the reference, this information is added after the title. Include their role and name in standard order, followed by a comma.
Produced by Quincy Jones,
For other types of sources, there may be other roles and individuals to highlight. Here are a few examples:
- Performance by Sid Caesar,
- Translated by Sarah Martin,
- Narrated by Rita Williams-Garcia,
4. Are you referencing a specific version?
Perhaps there is a specific edition of a book, song version, or movie cut. Include this information next, followed by a comma.
Google Play Exclusive Edition,
Other examples could include:
- Director’s cut,
- Unedited ed.,
- Instrumental version,
5. Got numbers?
Any numbers associated with the source, such as a volume and issue number, or episode number, are added next, followed by a comma.
For example, many journal articles have volume and issue numbers. Use vol. before the volume number and no. before the issue number.
vol. 2, no. 3,
Wondering what to exclude from your citations MLA paper? ISBN numbers! They’re never added into references.
6. Who published the source?
This information is added next in the reference, followed by a comma. Since the publisher listed is usually the formal name of a company or organization, use title case.
7. When was it published?
The date the source was published comes next, followed by a comma.
In the official Handbook , the references are displayed as Day Month Year. If the month is longer than 4 letters, abbreviate it.
4 Nov. 2019,
28 July 2015,
If you can’t find the source date, simply leave it out. Note: Some teachers want students to make a source with “no date” as “n.d.” If you’re unsure what your teacher wants, check in with them.
8. Where can you find the source?
The final component of the formula is the location.
- If the source was found online, this should be a website address. Make sure to omit https:// from the front of the string.
- It can be an actual location too, if the source is something you saw in a museum or elsewhere in real life.
- Or, it can also be a page number or page range.
- Always close out the reference with a period.
Now, let’s put all of the pieces together. Here’s what we come up with for our MLA citation example:
Jackson, Michael. “Beat It.” Thriller , produced by Quincy Jones, Google Play Exclusive Edition, Epic, 1982, play.google.com/store/music/album/Thriller?id=Bzs3hkvcyvinz5tkilucmmoqjhi&hl=en_US.
Some things to keep in mind:
1. It’s not necessary to include every piece to the puzzle. Only include the information that the reader would need in order to successfully locate the source themselves.
For example, in the Thriller example above, you’ll see there aren’t any specific numbers (besides the publication date) in the reference. Why? There aren’t any numbers associated with the source.
2. If you’re looking for help, the EasyBib MLA citation creator helps you develop your references. Give it a whirl! It’s free and easy to use! Nervous to try it out? Here’s a quick rundown on how to use it.
Reserve the precious time you have for researching and writing, rather than wrapping your head around MLA guidelines, rules, and structures. The EasyBib citing tool is here to help you easily create citations for all your papers and turn you into a citing, MLA machine!
Follow these steps:
- Find your source. We have over 50 types of sources to choose from.
- Our automatic generator (shown below) creates references using source data already available on the Internet. Simply type in a few key pieces of information about the source and click “Search.”
- Our manual form creates your references based on the information you enter. Fill out the form and click “Complete Citation.”
- The easy-to-follow directions guide you through the remainder of the process. Follow the steps on the screen and watch the magic happen in a few clicks and keystrokes!
- Copy and paste your completed reference into your project or export it to your document.
The EasyBib MLA format generator isn’t all that’s available. There are also tons of other nifty features, all available on our homepage, including an MLA title page maker and an innovative plagiarism checker ! That’s not all, there are many other thorough guides to help you with your referencing needs. Check out the EasyBib APA reference page , plus many more!
MLA citing is easier when you have visuals and examples to take a peek at. That’s why we’ve put together a list of the most common source types that students and scholars reference. If you’re trying to reference a book, newspaper article, website, or tweet, you’ll find the structures you need to get on the right track.
Pro tip: Don’t leave your references for the last minute! In your MLA outline or notes, keep track of the sources you use. This will help make the entire process easier for you! Some instructors may even have you complete an MLA annotated bibliography before writing your paper so that you can cite, organize, and become familiar with your sources in advance.
Below are examples for these sources:
If, instead, you need help with referencing an APA book citation , the linked guide walks you through the process!
This information is located on page 112-113 of the official Handbook .
CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK
E-book from the internet.
If you’re attempting to reference an e-book from an e-reader, such as a Nook or Kindle, use the EasyBib MLA citation generator. We’ll help you structure your e-book references in no time!
If you need more information on how to cite websites in MLA , check out the full-length EasyBib guide! Or, take the guesswork out of forming your references and try the EasyBib automatic MLA citation machine!
Need an APA citation website or help with another popular referencing style? EasyBib Plus may be exactly what you need.
ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLE
To see an online journal example in action, check out the EasyBib MLA sample paper, which is discussed at the bottom of this guide. Also, don’t forget about the easy-to-use, EasyBib automatic generator. Stop typing into Google “citation maker MLA” and go to EasyBib.com instead!
PRINT JOURNAL ARTICLE
If it’s referencing an APA journal you’re after, click on the link for the informative EasyBib guide on the topic.
If you’re looking for an MLA citation maker to help you build your bibliography, try out the EasyBib MLA generator. Type in a few key pieces of information about your source and watch the magic happen!
*In the above example, Natarajan’s article only sits on one page, so it’s unnecessary to include the page number in the reference in the text.
Print magazines are always fun to read, but know what else is a party? Brushing up on your grammar skills! Check out the thorough EasyBib grammar guides on adverb , determiner , and preposition pages!
*You do not need to include the city name in your citation if the city name is in the name of the newspaper or if it is a national or international newspaper.
**Since the above article is only on one page, it’s not necessary to include the page number in the text reference of your MLA style citation.
Need help? Use the EasyBib MLA citation machine, which guides you through the process of making newspaper references! Quit searching on Google for “how to MLA citation” and visit EasyBib.com today!
If your periodical article falls on nonconsecutive page numbers, add a plus sign after the first page number and omit the additional pages from any full references. Example: pp. B1+ (This information is located on page 193 in the official Handbook ). Don’t forget, the EasyBib citation machine MLA creator can help you structure all your citation information!
If you’re still confused about referencing online images, give the EasyBib MLA format generator a whirl. In just a few clicks, you’ll have well-structured MLA citations!
If you’re looking to reference an image seen in a print book, use the structure below. Or, use the “Cartoon,” “Photo,” “Painting,” or “Map” forms found on the EasyBib MLA generator for citations.
In need of a citation machine MLA maker to help save some of your precious time? Try EasyBib’s generator. Head to the EasyBib homepage and start developing your references today!
IMAGE VIEWED IN REAL LIFE
If you viewed an image in real life, whether at a museum, on display in a building, or even on a billboard, this EasyBib MLA citation guide example includes the most common way to reference it.
For the majority of online video references, the reference should start with the title of the video. The information about the account that uploaded the video should be included in the “Other Contributors” space.
For more on learning how to cite MLA timestamps, turn to page 250 in the official Handbook .
It’s common to see online videos featured in an annotated bibliography . Have a look at the useful guide to learn how to create one from scratch!
Streamed shows (sometimes called online or streamed “television shows”) are watched using a service such as Netflix, Hulu, Disney+, or another subscription streaming site.
If you accessed a streamed show through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.
After you’re through binging on your favorite shows, give yourself some brain fuel by taking a glance at the EasyBib grammar guides. Take your writing up a notch with the guides on interjection , conjunction , and verb pages!
*If you accessed a streamed song through an app, the name of the app can be displayed at the end of the citation as “[ Name of Service ] app” instead of including the URL.
Streamed music can be tricky to reference, especially with the wide variety of streaming services available on the web and through apps. Don’t worry, the EasyBib MLA citation maker can come in and save the day for you. Try it out now! To make it even easier, bookmark the EasyBib citation machine MLA maker for quick access!
*You can include the original composition date as supplemental information between the title and publisher. It may be helpful to include this information if the piece was composed much earlier than the sheet music you are citing or if the arrangement has significantly changed from the original.
SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES
Notable individuals consistently share pictures, videos, and ideas on social media, which is why social media is often referenced in today’s research papers . If you’re looking to add a reference for Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, or Instagram in your MLA paper, check out the structures and examples below.
*When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the account’s username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.
If the tweet is composed of just an image or video, create a description for it and do not place it in quotation marks. For example:
DJ Snake. Video of studio controls with music playing. Twitter , 11 Feb. 2020, twitter.com/djsnake/status/1227267455095123968.
Odds are, you could spend hours scrolling through Twitter to catch up on the latest news and gossip. Why not spend some time scrolling through the EasyBib grammar guides instead? Check out these informative noun and adjective guides to help keep your writing in check!
Looking for other types of sources, such as government and archival documents? Here’s more info .
Now that you’ve figured out how to style your references, the next step is structuring your written work according to this style’s guidelines. The thorough EasyBib MLA format guide provides you with the information you need to structure the font, MLA title page (or MLA cover page), paper margins, spacing, plus more! There’s even a sample MLA paper, too!
MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.
Published April 9, 2020. Updated July 25, 2021.
Written by Michele Kirschenbaum. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and is the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com.
MLA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Page Numbers
- Sample Paper
- Works Cited
- MLA 8 Updates
- MLA 9 Updates
- View MLA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all MLA Examples
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It’s 100% free to create MLA citations. The EasyBib Citation Generator also supports 7,000+ other citation styles. These other styles—including APA, Chicago, and Harvard—are accessible for anyone with an EasyBib Plus subscription.
No matter what citation style you’re using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) the EasyBib Citation Generator can help you create the right bibliography quickly.
Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.
Creating an account is not a requirement for generating MLA citations. However, registering for an EasyBib account is free and an account is how you can save all the citation you create. This can help make it easier to manage your citations and bibliographies.
Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.
If any important information is missing (e.g., author’s name, title, publishing date, URL, etc.), first see if you can find it in the source yourself. If you cannot, leave the information blank and continue creating your citation.
It supports MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and over 7,000 total citation styles.
An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.
Citation in prose
Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of the first citation in prose for one author is given below:
Carol Fitzerald explains the picture of the area.
Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is given below:
The picture of the area is explained (Fitzgerald).
When are other components included?
When you quote a specific line from the source, you can include a page number or a line number in in-text citations. Examples of both a citation in prose and a parenthetical citation are given below. Do not add “p.” or “pp.” before the page number(s).
Swan says, “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (47).
Though some researchers claim that “Postglacial viability and colonization in North America is to be studied” (Swan 47).
In-text citations should be concise. Do not repeat author names in parentheses if the name is mentioned in the text (the citation in prose).
To cite a periodical such as a journal, magazine, or newspaper, in the text, the basic element needed is the author’s name . The publication year is not required for in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation. The example below shows how to cite a periodical in the text.
Citations in prose use the author’s full name when citing for the first time. Thereafter, only use the surname. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry. An example of a citation in prose for a periodical with one author is below:
First time: Kathy Goldstein explains the picture of the area.
Subsequent occurrences: Goldstein explains the picture of the area.
Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses. An example of a parenthetical citation is below:
The picture of the area is explained (Goldstein).
An MLA citation generator is a tool that can help you easily create MLA formatted citations and works cited entries. You can try the EasyBib MLA citation generator at https://www.easybib.com/mla/source .
For some source types, only a single piece of information is needed in order to generate a citation. For example, the ISBN of a book, the DOI of a journal article, or the URL of a website. For other source types, a form will indicate what information is needed for the citation, and then automatically formats the citation.
Other Citation Styles
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- A Research Guide
- Citation Guides
- Citation Basics
- How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style
How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in MLA Style
- The name of the author, or authors
- The full title of the source material
- The name of the publisher
- The date of publication
- The page number of the source material
You definitely have to know the exact bibliography meaning in a paper, because it is too easy to confuse a bibliography with a works cited. The two are similar, but they are not the same. So what’s the difference?
Bibliography Vs. Works Cited
It was mentioned previously that a definition of a bibliography states it is a completed listing of every source used during the research and creation of a paper, whether the source was cited in the text or not. This is not the case with a Works Cited. A Works Cited includes only the material that was cited in the text.
There is another type of bibliography that is worth mentioning – the annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography definition is, for all intents and purposes, identical to a standard bibliography; however, there is one key difference. The author, publisher and page information is concluded with a short description of the actual content or quality of the source used.
If you ask a question of how to do a bibliography correctly, you should start with the following simple thing which is the most important. In order to gather all of the information necessary to draft a bibliography, you should keep a list of EVERY book, website, magazine or periodical that you read in preparation for your paper. Eventually, this list will comprise your bibliography.
While you are writing down (or even photocopying) the information for your source material, remember to include:
The information that you need to create your bibliography will not always be easy to find. Depending on the type of source material you are using, you might have to do some investigative work to gather everything you need. If you are not sure where to look, try here:
- The article heading
- The front page, or editorial page of a newsprint
- The table of contents of a journal
- The header or footer of a webpage
- The Contact or About Us page of a webpage
Now that you’ve gathered all of the necessary information, you are ready to create your preliminary bibliography.
The type of bibliography you create will depend largely on the type of citation or writing style that you are following. For example purposes, we will explore APA vs MLA. The two are similar in many ways, but there are some major differences as well.
Here is a chart explaining the differences between the two styles that are important when you have to choose between APA or MLA as a whole, and not just specifically as they relate to bibliographies.
However, before pressing forward, here is a handy checklist that you can use to make sure that you are gathering all of the information needed to create a bibliography, and that a great one! In the proceeding pages, you will find detailed information regarding how to properly write and format the bibliographical sources based on the specifics of the source material. Ie: Is there more than one author? Did the material come from a blog? Did the source material have multiple editors?
Note: In order to develop a strong bibliography, you should have answered yes to all of these questions.
- Article in an encyclopedia with an author
Please note that all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short, single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA. If the example you want is not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to look it up for you.
Format for entries
A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put a hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of a bibliography entry, but indent the second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2″ (1.25 cm) from the left margin.
In your Bibliography, Works Cited, or References page, you must include all of the above MLA parenthetical citation .
When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook.
You may always refer to the experts, just follow our writing services review:
- Book with one author or editor
- Book with two authors or editors
- Book with three authors or editors
- Book with more than three authors or editors
- Book with compilers, or compilers and editors
- Book with no author or editor stated
- Book with one author, translated by another
- Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers
- Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or or newspaper with no author stated
- Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors
- Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series)
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated
- Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author
- Book, movie or film review
- CD-ROM, DVD
- Computer service, e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.
- Definition from a dictionary
- Film, movie
- Government publication
- Internet citations, or citing electronic sources
- Letter, editorial
- Musical composition
- Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
- Performance (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
- Radio, Television
- Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape
- Software on floppy disk
- Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
- Unpublished dissertations, theses
1. Book with one author or editor:
Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005.
Biale, David, ed. Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002.
Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of Architecture from 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004.
Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Hyperion, 2005.
Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie & Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001.
Meidenbauer, Jörg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004.
Puzo, Mario. The Family: A Novel . Completed by Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999.
—. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
Suskind, Ron. The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of Paul O’Neill . New York: Simon, 2004.
If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work.
Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay.
(Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses )
Gay, Peter. Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999.
(Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion)
Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
(Title of Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred )
Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart )
Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995.
(Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars )
Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998.
2. Book with two authors or editors:
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International Environment of Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002.
Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit . Rev. ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.
Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice! 700 Years of Art for the Papal Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999.
Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998.
Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005.
Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005.
Book prepared for publication by two editors:
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square, 1992.
3. Book with three authors or editors:
Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002.
Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of Focus for College Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005.
Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go: Germany 1998 . New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.
Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002.
Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002.
4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the first author or editor named.
Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. or, Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003.
Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000.
Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. or, Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: 2005.
Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989.
5. Book with compilers, or compilers and editors:
McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994.
O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds. Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999.
Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997.
Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by.
6. Book with no author or editor stated:
Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999.
Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.
The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999.
With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004.
7. Book with one author, translated by another:
Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber. New York: Metropolitan, 1998.
8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers:
Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7.
Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly. San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22.
9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated:
“Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . 1997 ed.
“Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . 2000 ed.
10. Article in an encyclopedia with an author:
If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication.
Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed.
Midge, T. “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1997.
11. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75.
“Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct. 2002: B6.
“E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4.
“McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18.
“Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star 25 Nov. 2004: A18.
“Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6.
12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Use “+” for pages that are not consecutive.
Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of March. If there are 4 or less letters in the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005.
Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. Where a journal or magazine is a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed.
Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but added by you.
An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265.
The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at the end.
Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar. 2006: 47-49.
Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] 25 Jan. 2001: 36.
Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+.
Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. 2006: 24+.
Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+.
Dareini, Ali Akbar. “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News 15 Jan. 2006: A6.
Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88.
Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2.
Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by James Merrell. Town & Country Travel Fall 2004: 102-111.
Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45.
Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 18-22.
Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean Machines.” Detroit News and Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2.
Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: A18.
Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+.
Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. or use “et al.”: Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51.
13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series):
Suggested citation example from SIRS:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20.
Example in MLA style:
Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Work . Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20.
Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited.
Build-a-Bear. Advertisement. 7 Feb. 2005.
GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92.
IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7.
Toyota. Advertisement. Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30.
15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated:
Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997.
16. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author:
Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: Springbank, 1994.
17. Book, movie or film review:
May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler).
Creager, Angela N.H. “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA , by Brenda Maddox. American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66.
Dillon, Brenda. “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36.
Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77.
Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of The Binding Chair, by Kathryn Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, 1986, 31-44.
Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur. New England Journal of Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: 629-30.
Neier, Aryeh. “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33.
Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Julie Taymor. National Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+.
Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of A Complicated Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. 2004: 19-20.
Simic, Charles. “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct. 2002: 14+.
18. CD-ROM, DVD:
A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 .
Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 .
Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed. DVD. Microsoft, 2003.
LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald 7 Mar. 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. 4. Art. 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002.
YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: Tele-Direct, 1998.
19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.:
Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct. 1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065 197653951002.
20. Definition from a dictionary:
When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary.
“Mug.” Def. 2. The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language . Canadian ed. 1988.
21. Film, Movie:
Short forms may be used, e.g. dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. You may add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Depp, Johnny, perf. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005.
Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005.
Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005.
Nanny McPhee . Dir. Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ. Christianna Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Universal, 2005.
One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod. Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002.
Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth Century Fox and Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.
22. Government publication:
Cite government document in the following order if no author is stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date.
Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2000.
United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures . Washington: GPO, 2000.
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents.
In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers.
United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cite simply as: Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193.
For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed.
23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:
a. Internet citation for an advertisement
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserver, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail
h. Internet citation for an online government publication
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site
k. Internet citation for a software download
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another
Basic components of an Internet citation:
2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks.
3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined.
4) Editor of Project.
5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious.
6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified.
7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site).
9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets.
Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons.
Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in the Web site, and carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL.
If the URL is too long for a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in the original URL. Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement:
IBM. Advertisement. 23 Mar. 2003.
TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004.
b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g. SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated:
Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005.
Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . 10 Oct. 2005 <http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/neuro/review/>.
Machado, Victoria, and George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct. 2005.
Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 .
Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips Newsletter . Dec. 2003. NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005.
If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.:
Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004.
Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr. 2004 = date of access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out page numbers if not indicated in the source.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006.
Note: If you are citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006.
c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . 2005. Microsoft. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclopædia Britannica . 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005.
“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005.
d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated:
“Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
“Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005
e. Internet citation for an article in a scholarly journal:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003.
f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.:
“Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map. Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. 7 June 2003.
Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. 7 June 2003.
Lee, Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr. 2004.
“Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005.
g. Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003.
Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005 LII Team < [email protected] >.
PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. 10 Oct. 2005.
h. Internet citation for an online government publication:
Canada. Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat. Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005.
United States. National Archives and Records Administration. The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005.
i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor:
Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting. 4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005.
Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the Parking Brake On!” Online posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct. 2005.
j. Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site:
The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005.
O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb. 2002. U of St. Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005.
Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr. 2006.
Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006.
Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr. 2006.
Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. 16. 23 Mar. 1999. The Middle East Media and Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005.
k. Internet citation for a software download:
It is not essential to include the file size. Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004.
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from a published work with an editor:
Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955. Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005.
m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by another:
Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions & Enchiridion . Trans. and ed. Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005.
Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006.
Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005.
Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.
Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.
Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.
Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.
26. Letter, editorial:
An editorial: Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4.
Letter to the Editor: Lange, Rick. “U.N. Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I5.
Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37.
Reply to a letter to the Editor: Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005.
Published letter in a collection: Twain, Mark. “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.
27. Map or Chart:
Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004.
Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003.
“Dallas TX.” Map. 2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005.
Read also: How to do a research paper on your own?
28. Musical composition:
Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music piece or opera, underlined. 3) Form, number and key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Für Elise.
Strauss, Richard. Träumerei , op. 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underlined title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication.
Chopin, Frederic. Mazurka Op. 7, No. 1 . New York: Fischer, 1918.
Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950.
Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and Bye . London: Paxton, 1953.
Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form
Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. 3) Date when artwork was created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located.
Ashoona, Kiawak. Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON.
Brancusi, Constantin. The Kiss . 1909. Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris.
The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris.
Raphael. The School of Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome.
Rude, François. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. 2) Underlined title of artwork. 3) Date when artwork was created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is housed, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book. 8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number.
Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. 232.
Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.
Käsebier, Gertrude. The Magic Crystal . [c. 1904]. Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.
Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31.
Michelangelo. David . 1501-04. Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226.
Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. St. Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 408.
Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Náprstek Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dušan Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207.
Vanvitelli, Luigi, and Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the Baptist . 1742-51. São Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed. Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Cologne: Könemann, 1998. 118.
Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date of photograph taken.
War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on CNN. Personal photograph by author. 22 Mar. 2003.
Great Wall of China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued.
Arbter, Klaus, and Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachführung eines Stereo-Laparoskope in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996.
“Conversion of Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. 27 Sept. 1988.
Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 26 Oct. 1999.
31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Dir. Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002.
The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir. Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 20 Apr. 2002.
The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by James Kudelka. Cond. Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of Canada. Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. 30 Dec. 1999.
Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince. Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Pantages Theatre, Toronto. 20 Sept. 1998.
The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. 4 Mar. 2005.
32. Radio, television:
Components: 1) Title of episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 7) Broadcast date.
The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn. CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003.
Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. 16 Oct. 2002.
“New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . WBEN, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
“The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner. The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. 16 Oct. 2002.
“U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002.
33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape:
Components: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor. 2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet.
Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Zomba, 1999.
Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, n.d. or, Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.”
McDonald, Michael. No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and Ted Templeman. Engineered and mixed by Ross Pallone.
34. Software on floppy disk
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. IBM, 1998.
35. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette
Covey, Stephen R. Living the 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995.
Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Nettwerk, 1994.
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar ó n. Based on novel by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD. Warner, 2004.
Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996.
Kicking & Screaming . Dir. Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall. DVD. Universal, 2005.
The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, 1997.
The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS. Warner, 1999.
36.Unpublished dissertations, theses
Useful information: Professional dissertation writing service will provide you with high-quality papers from Ph.D. writers.
State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year.
Elmendorf, James. “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
Underline title if dissertation is published:
Chan, Marjorie K.M. Fuzhou Phonology: A Non-Linear Analysis of Tone and Stress . Diss. U of Washington, 1985.
Gregory, T.R. The C-Value Enigma . PhD thesis. U. of Guelph, ON, 2002.
Recommended Reading – What is a Annotated Bibliography?
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MLA Annotated Bibliography Examples and Writing Guide
Is your professor asking you to write an MLA annotated bibliography? Are you clueless? You’ve come to the right place. The world of bibliographies can be a tricky web to weave, especially when talking about annotated bibliographies. Take a deep breath and get ready. You’re going to learn everything you need to know to make an annotated bibliography in MLA 8 style.
MLA Annotated Bibliography Overview
MLA typically uses a works cited . But there might come a time when a professor asks you for an MLA annotated bibliography, too. An annotated bibliography takes your references to the next level. In addition to providing a citation, it gives you more information through an annotation: a fancy word for further explanation.
The Use and Difference of an MLA Annotated Bibliography
A standard bibliography provides necessary information about your source. You have the author, title, and publication information. But, sometimes that’s not enough. An annotated bibliography can provide a more in-depth study or evaluation.
In the process of creating your paper, you have become a topic expert. Show the world your expertise. Demonstrate why the source was perfect for your audience, and for the central theme of the article or book. It also allows you to show how this work compares to others you’ve discussed.
MLA Annotated Bibliography Example
Now that you know what an MLA annotated bibliography is, check out what it looks like through an example of an MLA annotated bibliography.
How Do You Write an Annotated Bibliography in MLA Format?
Before looking at the steps to creating an MLA annotated bibliography , there are a few things to remember about formatting. For example, do you double-space an MLA annotated bibliography? Yes, you do. Explore other fun formatting facts for creating your MLA annotated bibliography.
- Annotated bibliographies don’t have specific guidelines in the 8 th edition MLA handbook for making quotes. Therefore, if you need to include quotes, keep them short.
- Use hanging indents for citations. The first line starts on the left margin, but indent consecutive lines five spaces.
- Indent the beginning of the annotation.
- The annotation is typically between 100 and 300 words.
- Title the page “Annotated Bibliography” or “Annotated List of Works Cited.”
- Double-space your annotated bibliography.
Now that you know how to format MLA citations, it is time to begin writing.
Step 1: Create Your Citation in MLA
Citations vary depending on what you are citing. For example, the format for citing a book is different than a magazine. MLA breaks down the core elements of your citation to author, title, the title of container, contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, and location. For a website or digital file, include a URL as well. Check out an example:
Austen, J. Pride and Prejudice . Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004.
Step 2: Create the MLA Annotations
Creating the annotation is the pivotal part. This is an annotated bibliography, after all. The first thing to think about is whether this is a summary annotation or evaluative annotation. Per the names, the summary annotation provides a summary while an evaluative annotation evaluates the work. Examine each one in more depth:
- Summary Annotation : This type summarizes the source for the readers, letting them know the central theme of the book, plus information about the author and the target audience of the book.
- Evaluative Annotation : This type of annotation goes into more depth about the author, including any expertise and bias they have. It might compare the work to other works and delve into why it was used for the topic, along with the strengths and weaknesses you found.
Difference in MLA
MLA was designed for humanities writers. These are the people that write about literature, philosophy, and cultural science, to name a few. In these areas, you’ll see writers comparing one work to another. Therefore, this type of writing is more focused on the writer of sources and where to find them, which is where citations focus.
While an MLA annotated bibliography might look terrifying, remember you are an expert. You’ve done the research and have all the skills to prove to your audience why this source was perfect for your paper. You can also get more information about how to create your annotations for any style annotated bibliography by looking at how to create an annotated bibliography with examples .
Types of Bibliography Styles
FAQ MLA Annotated Bibliography Examples and Writing Guide
How do you write an annotated bibliography.
To write an annotated bibliography, you include a title, citation, and annotation. The title and citation might vary based on the writing style, (i.e., MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.); however, the annotation is the same for all styles. The annotation can be a summary or evaluative annotation.
Are MLA annotated bibliographies double spaced?
Yes, an annotated bibliography in MLA is double spaced. The annotative bibliography in MLA should follow all the formatting guidelines for the rest of the paper, including centering the title, adding a page number, and double spacing.
What are the two types of annotated bibliography?
The two types of annotated bibliography you commonly come across in MLA format are the summary and the evaluation annotative bibliographies. A summary annotated bibliography provides a summary of the sources. An evaluative annotated bibliography goes into more depth by evaluating the authors and providing a critic of the sources.
How do you write an annotation?
To write an annotation, you need an in-depth understanding of the work. You then must decide if you are going to write a summary of the work through a summary annotation or evaluate the work through an evaluation annotation. You'll then compose your annotation which is between 100-300 words.
Does an annotated bibliography need a conclusion?
No, an annotated bibliography does not need a conclusion. Your annotations simply provide a summary and critic of your sources. Since this is just a short paragraph, you do not need to include a conclusion in your annotations.
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MLA Abbreviations and Acronyms Including Months
How to properly punctuate a mla works cited page, how to put mla works cited in alphabetical order, how to cite a play in mla.
Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
MLA Sample Works Cited Page
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
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Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Note: We have chosen to include the date of access for the online sources below. The latest MLA guidelines specify that this is optional, but strongly recommended for sources whose date of publication is unavailable.
Note also: The citation for An Inconvenient Truth below assumes the film has been cited by its title in the text. If it had been cited by the name of its director, the citation would need to begin with Guggenheim's surname. MLA guidelines specify that both styles are acceptable (see, e.g., this "Ask the MLA" page ).
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." The New York Times , 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 29 May 2019.
Ebert, Roger. Review of An Inconvenient Truth , directed by Davis Guggenheim. Ebert Digital LLC , 1 June 2006, www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an-inconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2019.
Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-Organized Extinction: Toward a Co-Evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.
Harris, Rob, and Andrew C. Revkin. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times , 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
An Inconvenient Truth . Directed by Davis Guggenheim, Paramount, 2006.
Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology . Springer, 2005.
Milken, Michael, et al. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly , vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63.
Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review , vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.
---. "Global Warming Economics." Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, 9 Nov. 2001, pp. 1283-84, DOI: 10.1126/science.1065007.
Regas, Diane. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund , 1 June 2016, www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key-energy-policies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.
Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times , 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." US News & World Report , vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming . Cambridge UP, 2003.
Citation Guide: How to Format Bibliographical Entries for the Cited Reference Page
- Citations Home
- Title of Source
- Title of Container
- Other Contributors
- Publication Date
- Optional Elements
- In-Text Citations
- Books & eBooks
- Scholarly Journal Articles
- Additional Resources/Web Pages
- In-Text Citation
- APA Paper Format
- Online Databases
- Books, Encyclopedias, Theses, Dissertations
- Conferences, Data, Patents, Software, Standards, & Technical Reports
- Websites, Newspapers, Magazines, Federal Agency Publications, & Streaming Media
- Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
- Journal Abbreviations
How to Format Bibliographical Entries for the Cited Reference Page
- Sample CSE/CBE Paper
- Other Guides
- Additional Resources
- MC Writing Center
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of book. Edition [if other than first]. Place: Publisher; year.
- Jaynes ET. Probability theory: the logic of science. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press; 2003.
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article: subtitle. Journal Title Abbrev. Date;volume (issue):pages.
- Brunzell JD. Hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2007;357 (10):1009-1017.
- Wilmers CC, Crabtree RL, Smith D, Murphy KM, Getz WM. Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: gray wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. J Anim Ecol. 2003;72 (3):909-916.
Journal Article from an Online Periodical:
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article: subtitle. Journal Title Abbrev [Internet]. Date [cited date];volume (issue):pages. Available from: URL
- Isaacs FJ, Blake WJ, Collins JJ. Signal processing in single cells. Science [Internet]. 2005 Mar 25 [cited 2009 Jun 17];307(5717):1886-1888. Available from: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/307/5717/1886
Article form an Online Database:
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article. Title of Publication Abbrev [Internet]. Date [cited date]:pages. Name of Database. Place: Publisher; copyright year. Available from: Publisher’s URL Document No.: Number [if any].
- Morell V. The fragile world of frogs. Natl Geographic [Internet]. 2001 May [cited 2007 Oct 1]:106-123. Expanded Academic ASAP. Farmington Hills (MI): Gale; c2001. Available from: http://www.galegroup.com Document No.: A75434888.
Paper in Published Conference Proceedings:
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of paper. In: Title of proceedings; date; Place of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher; year. p. page number(s) of paper.
- Rozell CJ, Johnson DH. Examining methods for estimating mutual information in spiking neural systems. In: Proceedings of the Computational Neuroscience Meeting; 2004 Jul; Baltimore, MD. New York: Plenum; 2005. p. 234-252.
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of report. Edition [if other than first]. Place: Publisher; date. Report No.: number. Available from: Distributor or URL
- Smith DW, Stahler DR, Guernsey Ds, Metz M, Nelson A, Albers E, McIntyre R. Yellowstone wolf project: annual report 2006. Yellowstone National Park (WY): National Park Service, Yellow Center for Resources; 2007. Report No.: YCR-2007-01. Available from: http//www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/upload/wolfrpt06.pdf
Web Page within a Web Site:
Number. Last name Initial(s) [if any]. Title of Web site [Internet]. Place: Publisher; date of publication or copyright. Title of Web page; publication date of page [cited date]. Available from: URL of Web page
- Amphibiaweb [Internet]. Berkeley (CA): University of California; c2007. Wordwide amphibian declines: how big is the problem, what are the causes and what can be done? 2006 Jun 15 [cited 2007 Jul 25]. Available from: http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html
Audiovisual Sources (Videos, Sound Recordings)
Number. Last name Initial(s). Title (medium). Place: Publisher; year. Physical description.
- Wilson EO. The future of life: biodiversity in the new millennium [videocassette]. Los Angeles (CA): Into the Classroom Media; c2003. 1 videocassette: 47 min., sound, color.
CSE recommends not including personal communications, such as e-mail or unpublished interviews, in the reference list. A parenthetical note in the text usually suffices: (2010 e-mail to me; unreferenced).
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MLA formatting refers to the writing style guide produced by the Modern Language Association. If you’re taking a class in the liberal arts, you usually have to follow this format when writing papers. In addition to looking at MLA examples, ...
For in-text citations, cite the book by the author’s last name and the page number where you found the information using either attributive tags or parenthetical citation; the end-of-text citation on the Works Cited page should read (includ...
When writing in MLA format, use block quotes for quotes that are more than four lines long by introducing the quote with a colon and indenting the entire quote 1 inch from the left margin and flush to the right margin.
Format: Author's last name, first name (if available). "Title of work within a project or database." Title of site, project, or
Sample Bibliography: MLA ... The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name
Include suffixes such as Jr. or III after the author's first name. Separate the first name and the suffix by a comma unless the suffix is a numeral. For example
Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of E-book. Publisher, year published. Title of Website, web address. Example: London, Jack. The
Please note that this information sheet covers the format of entries in your Works Cited list only. For in-text parenthetical citations (used when making
Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do
Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date. In-Text Citation Format – Two Authors. (Last name and Last name
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Number. Last name Initial(s). Title of article. Title of Publication Abbrev [Internet]. Date [cited date]:pages. Name of Database. Place: