Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Acknowledgments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

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Blog Graphic Design

15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]

By Alice Corner , Jan 12, 2023

Venngage case study examples

Let me ask you a question: Have you ever bought something — within the last 10 years or so — without reading its reviews or without a recommendation or prior experience of using it?

If the answer is no — or at least, rarely — you get my point.

For businesses selling consumer goods, having raving reviews is a good way to get more customers. The same thing applies to B2B and/or SaaS businesses — but for this type of business, besides regular, short reviews, having a detailed case study can help tremendously.

Case studies are an incredibly effective form of marketing that you can use to help promote your product and plan your marketing strategy effectively. You can also use it as a form of customer analysis or as a sales tool to inspire potential customers.

So what does a case study look like and how can you create one? In this article, I’m going to list over 15 marketing case study examples, case study tips, and case study templates to help you create a case study that converts.

Bold Social Media Business Case Study Template

Click to jump ahead:

Sales Case Study Examples

Simple case study examples, business case study examples.

What is a case study?

A case study is a research method to gain a better understanding of a subject or process. Case studies involve in-depth research into a given subject, in order to understand its functionality and successes.

In the context of a business, however, case studies take customer success stories and explore how they use your product to help them achieve their business goals.

Case Study Definition LinkedIn Post

As well as being valuable marketing tools, case studies are a good way to evaluate your product as it allows you to objectively examine how others are using it.

It’s also a good way to interview your customers about why they work with you.

Related: What is a Case Study? [+6 Types of Case Studies]

What is a marketing case study?

A marketing case study is a type of marketing where you use your existing customers as an example of what your product or services can achieve. You can also create case studies of internal, successful marketing projects.

Here’s an example of a marketing case study template:

marketing case study example

Return to Table of Contents

Marketing case study examples

Marketing case studies are incredibly useful for showing your marketing successes. Every successful marketing campaign relies on influencing a consumer’s behavior, and a great case study can be a great way to spotlight your biggest wins.

In the marketing case study examples below, a variety of designs and techniques to create impactful and effective case studies.

Show off impressive results with a bold marketing case study

Case studies are meant to show off your successes, so make sure you feature your positive results prominently. Using bold and bright colors as well as contrasting shapes, large bold fonts, and simple icons is a great way to highlight your wins.

In well-written case study examples like the one below, the big wins are highlighted on the second page with a bright orange color and are highlighted in circles.

Making the important data stand out is especially important when attracting a prospective customer with marketing case studies.

Light simplebusiness case study template

Use a simple but clear layout in your case study

Using a simple layout in your case study can be incredibly effective, like in the example of a case study below.

Keeping a clean white background, and using slim lines to help separate the sections is an easy way to format your case study.

Making the information clear helps draw attention to the important results, and it helps improve the  accessibility of the design .

Business case study examples like this would sit nicely within a larger report, with a consistent layout throughout.

Modern lead Generaton Business Case Study Template

Use visuals and icons to create an engaging and branded business case study

Nobody wants to read pages and pages of text — and that’s why Venngage wants to help you communicate your ideas visually.

Using icons, graphics, photos, or patterns helps create a much more engaging design. 

With this Blue Cap case study icons, colors, and impactful pattern designs have been used to create an engaging design that catches your eye.

Social Media Business Case Study template

Use a monochromatic color palette to create a professional and clean case study

Let your research shine by using a monochromatic and minimalistic color palette.

By sticking to one color, and leaving lots of blank space you can ensure your design doesn’t distract a potential customer from your case study content.

Color combination examples

In this case study on Polygon Media, the design is simple and professional, and the layout allows the prospective customer to follow the flow of information.

The gradient effect on the left-hand column helps break up the white background and adds an interesting visual effect.

Gray Lead Generation Business Case Study Template

Did you know you can generate an accessible color palette with Venngage? Try our free accessible color palette generator today and create a case study that delivers and looks pleasant to the eye:

Venngage's accessible color palette generator

Add long term goals in your case study

When creating a case study it’s a great idea to look at both the short term and the long term goals of the company to gain the best understanding possible of the insights they provide.

Short-term goals will be what the company or person hopes to achieve in the next few months, and long-term goals are what the company hopes to achieve in the next few years.

Check out this modern pattern design example of a case study below:

Lead generation business case study template

In this case study example, the short and long-term goals are clearly distinguished by light blue boxes and placed side by side so that they are easy to compare.

Lead generation case study example short term goals

Use a strong introductory paragraph to outline the overall strategy and goals before outlining the specific short-term and long-term goals to help with clarity.

This strategy can also be handy when creating a consulting case study.

Use data to make concrete points about your sales and successes

When conducting any sort of research stats, facts, and figures are like gold dust (aka, really valuable).

Being able to quantify your findings is important to help understand the information fully. Saying sales increased 10% is much more effective than saying sales increased.

In sales case study examples, like this one, the key data and findings can be presented with icons. This contributes to the potential customer’s better understanding of the report.

They can clearly comprehend the information and it shows that the case study has been well researched.

Vibrant Content Marketing Case Study Template

Use emotive, persuasive, or action based language in your marketing case study

Create a compelling case study by using emotive, persuasive and action-based language when customizing your case study template.

Case study example pursuasive language

In this well-written case study example, we can see that phrases such as “Results that Speak Volumes” and “Drive Sales” have been used.

Using persuasive language like you would in a blog post. It helps inspire potential customers to take action now.

Bold Content Marketing Case Study Template

Keep your potential customers in mind when creating a customer case study for marketing

82% of marketers use case studies in their marketing  because it’s such an effective tool to help quickly gain customers’ trust and to showcase the potential of your product.

Why are case studies such an important tool in content marketing?

By writing a case study you’re telling potential customers that they can trust you because you’re showing them that other people do.

Not only that, but if you have a SaaS product, business case studies are a great way to show how other people are effectively using your product in their company.

In this case study, Network is demonstrating how their product has been used by Vortex Co. with great success; instantly showing other potential customers that their tool works and is worth using.

Teal Social Media Business Case Study Template

Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert

Case studies are particularly effective as a sales technique.

A sales case study is like an extended customer testimonial, not only sharing opinions of your product – but showcasing the results you helped your customer achieve.

Make impactful statistics pop in your sales case study

Writing a case study doesn’t mean using text as the only medium for sharing results.

You should use icons to highlight areas of your research that are particularly interesting or relevant, like in this example of a case study:

Coral content marketing case study template.jpg

Icons are a great way to help summarize information quickly and can act as visual cues to help draw the customer’s attention to certain areas of the page.

In some of the business case study examples above, icons are used to represent the impressive areas of growth and are presented in a way that grabs your attention.

Use high contrast shapes and colors to draw attention to key information in your sales case study

Help the key information stand out within your case study by using high contrast shapes and colors.

Use a complementary or contrasting color, or use a shape such as a rectangle or a circle for maximum impact.

Blue case study example case growth

This design has used dark blue rectangles to help separate the information and make it easier to read.

Coupled with icons and strong statistics, this information stands out on the page and is easily digestible and retainable for a potential customer.

Blue Content Marketing Case Study Tempalte

Less is often more, and this is especially true when it comes to creating designs. Whilst you want to create a professional-looking, well-written and design case study – there’s no need to overcomplicate things.

These simple case study examples show that smart clean designs and informative content can be an effective way to showcase your successes.

Use colors and fonts to create a professional-looking case study

Business case studies shouldn’t be boring. In fact, they should be beautifully and professionally designed.

This means the normal rules of design apply. Use fonts, colors, and icons to create an interesting and visually appealing case study.

In this case study example, we can see how multiple fonts have been used to help differentiate between the headers and content, as well as complementary colors and eye-catching icons.

Blue Simple Business Case Study Template

Whether you’re a B2B or B2C company, business case studies can be a powerful resource to help with your sales, marketing, and even internal departmental awareness.

Business and business management case studies should encompass strategic insights alongside anecdotal and qualitative findings, like in the business case study examples below.

Conduct a B2B case study by researching the company holistically

When it comes to writing a case study, make sure you approach the company holistically and analyze everything from their social media to their sales.

Think about every avenue your product or service has been of use to your case study company, and ask them about the impact this has had on their wider company goals.

Venngage orange marketing case study example

In business case study examples like the one above, we can see that the company has been thought about holistically simply by the use of icons.

By combining social media icons with icons that show in-person communication we know that this is a well-researched and thorough case study.

This case study report example could also be used within an annual or end-of-year report.

Highlight the key takeaway from your marketing case study

To create a compelling case study, identify the key takeaways from your research. Use catchy language to sum up this information in a sentence, and present this sentence at the top of your page.

This is “at a glance” information and it allows people to gain a top-level understanding of the content immediately. 

Purple SAAS Business Case Study Template

You can use a large, bold, contrasting font to help this information stand out from the page and provide interest.

Learn  how to choose fonts  effectively with our Venngage guide and once you’ve done that.

Upload your fonts and  brand colors  to Venngage using the  My Brand Kit  tool and see them automatically applied to your designs.

The heading is the ideal place to put the most impactful information, as this is the first thing that people will read.

In this example, the stat of “Increase[d] lead quality by 90%” is used as the header. It makes customers want to read more to find out how exactly lead quality was increased by such a massive amount.

Purple SAAS Business Case Study Template Header

If you’re conducting an in-person interview, you could highlight a direct quote or insight provided by your interview subject.

Pick out a catchy sentence or phrase, or the key piece of information your interview subject provided and use that as a way to draw a potential customer in.

Use charts to visualize data in your business case studies

Charts are an excellent way to visualize data and to bring statistics and information to life. Charts make information easier to understand and to illustrate trends or patterns.

Making charts is even easier with Venngage.

In this consulting case study example, we can see that a chart has been used to demonstrate the difference in lead value within the Lead Elves case study.

Adding a chart here helps break up the information and add visual value to the case study. 

Red SAAS Business Case Study Template

Using charts in your case study can also be useful if you’re creating a project management case study.

You could use a Gantt chart or a project timeline to show how you have managed the project successfully.

event marketing project management gantt chart example

Use direct quotes to build trust in your marketing case study

To add an extra layer of authenticity you can include a direct quote from your customer within your case study.

According to research from Nielsen , 92% of people will trust a recommendation from a peer and 70% trust recommendations even if they’re from somebody they don’t know.

Case study peer recommendation quote

So if you have a customer or client who can’t stop singing your praises, make sure you get a direct quote from them and include it in your case study.

You can either lift part of the conversation or interview, or you can specifically request a quote. Make sure to ask for permission before using the quote.

Contrast Lead Generation Business Case Study Template

This design uses a bright contrasting speech bubble to show that it includes a direct quote, and helps the quote stand out from the rest of the text.

This will help draw the customer’s attention directly to the quote, in turn influencing them to use your product or service.

Case Study Examples Summary

Once you have created your case study, it’s best practice to update your examples on a regular basis to include up-to-date statistics, data, and information.

You should update your business case study examples often if you are sharing them on your website.

It’s also important that your case study sits within your brand guidelines – find out how Venngage’s My Brand Kit tool can help you create consistently branded case study templates.

Case studies are important marketing tools – but they shouldn’t be the only tool in your toolbox. Content marketing is also a valuable way to earn consumer trust.

Case Study FAQ

Why should you write a case study.

Case studies are an effective marketing technique to engage potential customers and help build trust.

By producing case studies featuring your current clients or customers, you are showcasing how your tool or product can be used. You’re also showing that other people endorse your product.

In addition to being a good way to gather positive testimonials from existing customers, business case studies are good educational resources and can be shared amongst your company or team, and used as a reference for future projects.

How should you write a case study?

To create a great case study, you should think strategically. The first step, before starting your case study research, is to think about what you aim to learn or what you aim to prove.

You might be aiming to learn how a company makes sales or develops a new product. If this is the case, base your questions around this.

You can learn more about writing a case study  from our extensive guide.

Some good questions you could ask would be:

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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study

case study writing sample

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

case study

Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

case study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:


Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

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Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.


Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

case study

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

Problems to avoid:

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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

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Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our writing service, and all of your worries will be gone.

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What Is a Case Study?

An in-depth study of one person, group, or event

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

case study writing sample

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

case study writing sample

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

Benefits and Limitations

Types of case studies, how to write a case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in various fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The purpose of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, it is important to follow the rules of APA format .  

A case study can have both strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

On the negative side, a case study:

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they are interested in exploring a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. The insights gained from such research can help the researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

However, it is important to remember that the insights gained from case studies cannot be used to determine cause and effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers utilize depends on the unique characteristics of the situation as well as the case itself.

There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study, including prospective and retrospective case study methods.

Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.

Retrospective case study methods involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individual's life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.

Where to Find Data

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

A Word From Verywell

Case studies can be a useful research tool, but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow. If you are writing your case study for professional publication, be sure to check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Simply Psychology. Case Study Method .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

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What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on January 30, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

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While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

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Learn How to Write a Case Study Correctly: Tips and Examples

Updated 26 Jan 2023

How to Write a Case Study

This helpful guide will explain how to write a case study by focusing on the definition, main specifics, and the purpose of such academic writing. This article will also explain the elements that make case study writing unique by providing an example to help you follow along as you write with the same quality just as with the help of plagiarism tool . 

What is a Case Study?

There is no universal definition for case study writing that would match all the types of this academic task. It is usually an intensive and detailed study related to a person, a particular event, a case, situation, or series of cases that are united with the same context or a scientific objective. It must represent a clear, systematic analysis and estimation of both a single person or community to determine similarities and differences or to portray the findings by turning to specific theoretical concepts.

Depending on your course and provided instructions, you may take a comparative, analytical, explanatory, or reflective approach to case study writing among other things. The main purpose is to provide analysis and methodology based on the case study sample that you have by defining the key arguments that help you achieve an outcome.

Learning how to write a case study, most college students keep asking about the length of case study writing. It will depend on your academic approach, discipline, and the case study itself. In the majority of cases, your case study writing should be from 500 to 1,500 words in total.

The Difference Between Research Paper and Case Study

The major difference lies in the purpose as the research paper must focus on finding the most efficient solution to a certain problem. The case study, on the other hand, will strive for an in-depth analysis of a particular case with no references to certain academic views of the subject. As you learn what is a case study, it's essential to understand that case study writing is not asking for synthesis of previously available information, which often requires an individual approach to a problem (one patient in nursing, one problem of the environmental kind, etc). It's also necessary to offer your view and analysis compared to a research paper where you must also explore similar publications related to your topic. Writing a case study is not the easiest task so hiring a qualified article review writer online is a common option for students.

Types of Case Studies

Writing a case study as a college student, you will encounter various types of case study tasks. As you learn more about them, it becomes easier to stay focused and determine what kind of tone must be used.

As you learn how to do a case study, remember that you can combine two of these types together to achieve a deeper outcome of your analytical research. Always check with your grading rubric to determine what kind of academic approach you have to take and then adjust your case study materials accordingly. It will save you a great deal of time as you work on your assignment. In case you need assistance, our nursing paper writing service is here to help you get the best grades. Our team of experienced writers guarantees the highest quality of work and timely delivery. 

Case Study Format Rules

Learning how to format your writing is essential because it will be one of those elements that help the grader to determine whether you understand the task correctly.

Here are the main rules to remember:

What we have in result usually ends up in four major sections that are: an introduction, body paragraphs where you talk about the problem, an explanation and presentation of your findings section, and the final conclusion where you state the results. The writing mechanics will depend on the formatting style like MLA or APA.

MLA Rules Template:

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Your Case Study (in italics). Location of the Publisher.

APA Format for Case Study:

The important difference with APA formatting style is that it should include the cover page and the table of contents where your readers can see each part of the report and the executive summary part. The citation template for the references page is as follows:

Author(s). (Year). Title of your case study. Number of case study.

Harvard Style Case Study Reference: 

Author or Editor's Last Name, Initials. (Year) "Title of your case study" [Case Study], Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers.

How to Write a Case Study: Step-by-step Guide

As you learn how to write a case study correctly, it’s necessary to take the following steps to ensure that no important point has been missed:

Step 1: Choose Your Topic . Even when you already have a document to work with, the first step is choosing your topic statement, which should reflect your study approach to the problem. Brainstorm various case study topic ideas first! Make sure that you choose something that reflects not only your case study but also your course and relevant ideas.

Step 2: Determine Your Case Study Type. It may be an illustrative case study or series of cases that you have to work with. Check with your grading rubric twice to stay on the right track.

Step 3: Create Case Study Outline. This part is the most important as you have to work on your case study introduction. It's essential to provide background information and describe the problem posed in the case study document. As you create an outline, start with the key facts that address your objectives and take notes as you study what you have. These notes may be mentioned in the outline for your case study. Basically, an outline should contain information about the person or an event, problem and the goals you would like to achieve, your solution, the results of your work, and the call-to-action sentence (if applicable).

Step 4: Research Your Case. Research the problem first before you come up with a thesis. Look into similar case studies and see what similiarities are worth checking.

Step 5: Develop Your Thesis Statement. It should be specific and must set the direction for your readers. You can also use external sources to support your main idea. Provide at least one piece of evidence.

Step 6: Address Important Arguments in Body Paragraphs. Each body paragraph must start with a topic sentence where you place several references to an important element mentioned in the original case study.

Step 7: Work On Your Conclusion. Your final paragraph is where you should sum up the information and suggest recommendations for further research.

Remember that the majority of challenges that you encounter with a case study paper can be addressed by checking with your grading rubric. Starting with the titles to choose from to the summary that you may have to include in the sample of your work, original instructions may help you to determine what kind of work must be done before you start writing. 

How to Compose a Case Study Draft

Let us assume that we need to create an assignment where business case study examples can come in handy. While you can take a look online and see templates for this and that, specialists at EduBirdie recommend checking the writing template below for an easier way to get things done:

a) identify the purpose of your study ( it can be the company’s failure or a successful innovation by a particular person ).

b) define the type of the case study research ( an illustrative type would fit best here ).

a) describe basic background information ( talk about the company or a person, a group of people or an event ). 

b) explain the pros and cons of the problem ( describe the importance and why it is relevant for you and the community ). 

c) discuss your methods and objectives ( set your research method ).

a) segregate major and minor points ( start with the most important elements and continue with what’s less significant ). 

b) address strengths and weaknesses of your approach ( discuss why your approach might not cover all range of the business problem ). 

c) talk about limitations ( explain what barriers you have faced and what the case study failed to provide ).

a) explain your school of thought ( offer information based on a particular method or a scientific concept ). 

b) pros of your approach ( discuss the positive sides of your solution ). 

c) set your hypothesis ( feel free to make assumptions and create analytical strategy ).

a) provide summary of your findings ( you can use bullet points to discuss your findings ). 

b) connect your thesis with an outcome ( remind your readers about your thesis and the most important argument ).

a) Provide possible helpful recommendations ( you can recommend alternative solutions or suggest how the limitations can be addressed ).

b) Recommend further literature ( you can mention further reading ).

How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Speaking of case study structure in APA format, as an example, you may have to create a title.

Here are the rules to follow:

- Running head should include running title with a page number flushed to the right top corner. The running head itself should have a one inch margin and be typed in CAPS. 

- The title of the case study must be in title case, centered, and in the bold font. 

- Your name must be centered. 

- Provide your department and the university name. 

- Course code and name follow next and remain centered.

- Your professor's name must be provided in "Dr. John Gerahty" format. 

- Date should be: Month, Day, Year (June 3, 2021).

All these entries must use Times New Roman font, size 12.

For example:

Effects of Transwave Synthesis: An Engineering Audio Therapy Case Study 

Carrie Wood

Department of Audio Engineering, Berkeley School of Music

ENGN 223: Synthesis and Audio Therapty

Dr. Andrew Johnson

May 4, 2019 

Case Study Citation Templates & Examples

Let us assume that we need to cite a case study by David Lee that has been published at the Hardvard Business Publishing website in 2022. We need to obtain the date of publication, name of the case study, and the special reference number that can help us obtain the case study. Here is our citation in APA style :

Lee, D. (2022). What Does Diversity Mean in a Global Organization? (HBR Case Study). HBR No. R2203X-PDF-ENG.

Now a textbook-based case study will look this way: 

Author(s) or Editor(s) of the case study. (Year of publishing). Title of chapter or case study. In First initial. Last Name, and First initial. Last name (Eds.), Title of book (pp.) Publisher's Name. 

For example: 

Patterson, J. (2009) The Apple's Take On Luxury. In J. Walden, Cases of Marketing Success (pp. 34-39). Bailey Publishing House. 

Author's Last Name, First Name. Case Study Title (in italics). Location of the Publisher, Journal, or Organization.

Chandler, Nigel. "Disney and Disability Cases on Screen." American Journal of Cinemetograph y, vol 14, no. 2, 2004, pp. 281-99.

Case Study Examples

Without a doubt, there are numerous case study examples that you can find online, yet not all of them follow a necessary structure and your final task (and type!) may differ in the end. The most important is to introduce the case study correctly even if you have to write it in a reflective tone. Here is an example of a correct case study introduction and objectives sample:


A debate on the case studies of Autism among the college learners by Arizona's State University, Department of Psychology. 


I feel obliged to compose this personal case study on autism in the academic environment because I have been able to succeed, being in the middle of the autistic spectrum. For some people, however, autism is often seen as a disability and a barrier for learning. Dealing with issues like hypersensitivity and a non-typical reaction to light and sound, I can state that every case is different. In my personal experience, if there are no medical conditions that come along with autism, there is no solid reason to claim that it affects the learning process in the negative way. While there are certain neurological issues, it's only a pace of the learning process that plays an important role.

The main problem with autism and the learning process is that people who are living with this condition are left in the position of being disabled and even harmful for other society members. While autism is considered a learning barrier and a mental disability by some scientists, there is no universal formula that would make it possible to set the final diagnosis. If the talk goes of a functional impairment, the college professors and universities must provide a certain framework to help each student achieve success based on their academic merits and skills.

My hope in the writing of this case study is to address misconceptions and allow fellow students and members of the academic community to explore autism in the learning environment without a biased attitude. I hope that my own personal experience with autism, being a university learner, can help recognize relevant symptoms and help manage the condition in a different way by allowing students with a condition to learn and prosper. 

When You Need Urgent Writing Help!

We know that case study writing may sound overly complex, yet we are sincerely hoping that this guide has helped you clarify the majority of your questions and concerns about this type of writing. If you are still feeling lost or need to get things done urgently, consider professional case study help . The most important is to seek help when you need it by approaching online experts. We are ready to offer timely assistance that will help you achieve success and get over the writer’s block.

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case study writing sample

How to Write a Case Study

This guide explains how to write a descriptive case study. A descriptive case study describes how an organization handled a specific issue. Case studies can vary in length and the amount of details provided. They can be fictional or based on true events.

Why should you write one? Case studies can help others (e.g., students, other organizations, employees) learn about

Writing a case study also allows you to critically examine your organizational practices.

The following pages provide examples of different types of case study formats. As you read them, think about what stands out to you. Which format best matches your needs? You can make similar stylistic choices when you write your own case study.

ACF Case Studies of Community Economic Development external icon This page contains links to nine case studies that describe how different organizations performed economic development activities in their communities.

National Asthma Control Program Wee Wheezers This case study describes a public health program.

CDC Epidemiologic Case Studies This page contains links to five classroom-style case studies on foodborne diseases.

ATSDR Environmental Health and Medicine This page contains links to approximately 20 classroom-style case studies focused on exposures to environmental hazards.

What are your goals ? What should your intended readers understand or learn after reading your case? Pick 1–5 realistic goals. The more goals you include, the more complex your case study might need to be.

Who is your audience? You need to write with them in mind.

What kind of background knowledge do they have? Very little, moderate, or a lot of knowledge. Be sure to explain special terms and jargon so that readers with little to moderate knowledge can understand and enjoy your case study.

What format do you need to use? Will your case study be published in a journal, online, or printed as part of a handout? Think about how word minimums or maximums will shape what you can talk about and how you talk about it. For example, you may be allowed fewer words for a case study written for a print textbook than for a webpage.

What narrative perspective will you use? A first-person perspective uses words such as “I” and” “we” to tell a story. A third-person perspective uses pronouns and names such as “they” or “CDC”. Be consistent throughout your case study.

Depending on your writing style, you might prefer to write everything that comes to your mind first, then organize and edit it later. Some of you might prefer to use headings or be more structured and methodical in your approach. Any writing style is fine, just be sure to write! Later, after you have included all the necessary information, you can go back and find more appropriate words, ensure your writing is clear, and edit your punctuation and grammar.

After writing a draft, the case study writer or team should have 2–3 people, unfamiliar with the draft, read it over. These people should highlight any words or sentences they find confusing. They can also write down one or two questions that they still have after reading the draft. The case study writer or team can use those notes make edits.

Finally, the writer/team should have someone with a good eye for detail review the case study for grammar and formatting issues. You can review the CDC Style Guide pdf icon [PDF – 1.36 MB] external icon  for clarification on the use of punctuation, spelling, tables, etc.

Green BN, Johnson CD. How to write a case report for publication. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 2006;5(2):72-82.

Scholz RW, Tietje O. Types of case studies. In: Embedded Case Study Methods . Thousand Oaks (CA): SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2002. P. 9-14. doi:10.4135/9781412984027

Warner C. How to Write a Case Study [online]. 2009. Available from URL: pdf icon [PDF – 14.5 KB] external icon

Title: Organization: Author(s):

Goals: After reading this case study, readers should

Introduction Who is your organization? What is your expertise? Provide your audience with some background information, such as your expertise. This provides context to help them understand your decisions. (How much should you write? A few sentences to 1 paragraph)

What problem did you address? Who identified the problem? Provide some background on who noticed the problem and how it was reported. Were multiple organizations or people involved in identifying and addressing the problem? This will help the reader understand how and why decisions were made. (1 paragraph)

Case Details Provide more information about the community. What factors affected your decisions? Describe the community. The context, or setting, is very important to readers. What are some of the unique characteristics that affected your decisions? (1 paragraph)

How did you address the problem? Start at the beginning. Summarize what happened, in chronological order. If you know which section of the publication your case study is likely to be put in, you can specify how your actions addressed one or more of the main points of the publication/lesson.

What challenge(s) did you encounter? Address them now if you have not already.

What was the outcome? What were your notable achievements? Explain how your actions or the outcomes satisfy your learning goals for the reader. Be clear about the main point. For example, if you wanted readers to understand how your organization dealt with a major organizational change, include a few sentences that reiterate how you encountered and dealt with the organizational change. (A few sentences to 1 paragraph)

Conclusion Summarize lessons learned. Reiterate your main point(s) for the reader by explaining how your actions, or the outcomes, meet your goals for the reader.

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How to Write a Case Study (+10 Examples & Free Template!)

Kristen McCormick

Ah, the case study: One of the most important pieces of marketing content for a business, and yet all too often, also the most boring. The problem with this is, lose a reader and you lose a customer. It doesn’t have to be this way!

marketing case study template

In this guide, I’m going to show you how to write a case study that prospects will actually want to read. An attractive , inspiring , and convincing case study that turns readers into customers.

Table of contents

What is a case study.

How long should a case study be?

A case study is a self-contained story about how a real customer overcame their problems using your products or services. Notice how I used the word story. Marketers are obsessed with the notion of “storytelling” (usually without actually telling stories), but a good case study is a story with protagonist (your customer) who has a problem but who wins out in the end.

what is a case study - example of intercom case study

This case study example by Intercom puts faces to the name of their protagonist, Atlassian.

By the end of a case study, the reader should be able to visualize themselves as the hero of their own story. They should be able to relate to the problems of your featured customer, and see themselves achieving their own goals by using your product or service.

Why write a business case study?

Case studies may not be as sexy as a viral blog post, and as such they’re often overlooked in favor of other content formats. This begs the question – why create marketing case studies at all?

The answer is because they’re really effective.

how to write a case study - chart showing case studies as most trusted content

This varies by industry (a kitchen remodeling business could probably tell their whole story in pictures while a software invoicing solution, not so much), but here are some guidelines:

What a marketing case study is NOT

A case study is an on-brand, data-driven, objective resource for potential customers to gain confidence in your business. Here is what they are not.

How to write a case study: steps & format

Now that we’re clear on what a marketing case study is (and isn’t), as well as why you should be producing them, let’s talk about how to actually write a case study worth reading.

marketing case study template

Click to view full-size.

A case study example

Let’s go into the details on each one of the steps above, using a fictional example. Our business is Kumbo Digital and our client is Currigate.

1. Start with a clear headline

This should be like a newspaper headline that gives the most important information. A subtitle with supporting details or a customer quote is optional.

Currigate Plugs $12k in Profit Leaks with Kumbo Digital

2. Provide a snapshot

There should be a section at the top with the important details. This includes

3. Introduce the client

Share one to two sentences with your customer’s name, industry, location, and a highlight.

Currigate is a software service that offers highly customizable subscription packages to banks, brokers, and investors in the mortgage lending market. 

4. State the problem, consequences, & hesitations

Explain the issue the customer was facing or the goal they were having a hard time reaching—as well as the negative outcomes.

While this high level of customization is what sets Currigate apart from its competitors, it also requires multiple applications with disparate data and heavy manual work. Account owners were spending so much time manage invoicing, there was little left over to build relationships with clients, stay on top of overages, and upsell. This was leading to leaks in profitability and a weakening of customer service. 

Include customer quotes as well as any hesitancies they had with using a product or service like yours.

“We were getting in our own way,” said Melanie Grigham, Currigate’s VP of Operations. “Our customer relationships were starting to falter, and we knew we had to do something. But the thought of manipulating just one of our data sources—let alone all seven—was scary. There were so many random connections in place and so much confidential information, we couldn’t risk it all breaking.”

5. Describe the solution

Share how the customer found your business and why they chose you.

Grigham learned about Kumbo Digital through none other than Google research and decided to get in touch. “The thought of explaining the whole thing felt daunting, but I was relieved to hear [the rep] finishing my sentences for me!”

Include which specific product or service they chose, how it was implemented, and how the customer used it. Stay brief!

After learning the details of the situation, the Kumbo team proposed a custom solution that would integrate all of the data sources into one dashboard. “I was hesitant at first, but they showed me a small scale example which helped me to understand a little more about how it would work. I appreciated their patience with me as I took some time to make a decision.” Grigham finally went with it. The dashboard took three weeks to implement and the data migration took just under a day.

6. Share the results & benefits

Share how the client used your product/service, what the results were, and the benefits. Include direct quotes and clear evidence (statistical data, before-and-after images, time-lapse videos, etc.)

With the new platform, Currigate’s account managers could access all seven data sources—as well as generate, track, send, and approve invoices—all in one place. Time spent invoicing went from days to hours, freeing up time for them to engage with customers and work toward strategic goals. “Our staff are less bogged down to the point where they’re asking to take on more clients—which is unheard of.” The redesigned and simplified product catalog (206 product codes instead of 1,024) has also made it easier for them to upsell as well as recommend combinations for specific needs. “Sometimes our new clients don’t know what they want, and this is perfect for giving them a starting point.” In addition, Currigate was able to identify $12,403 worth of overages they wouldn’t have caught otherwise. “Now, we can be sure that their customers are being billed appropriately (which is great for us) and receiving the services best fit for their dynamic needs (which is great for them). It’s a win-win.”

7. Conclude with words of advice and a CTA

Share where the client is headed, any additional quotes or praise, and/or their advice for similar potential clients.

Today, Currigate’s unique subscription model is as strong as ever. It’s even considering opening up to new markets. “We never thought we’d reach this point so soon—we thought new markets was years down the line,” said Melanie. When asked what advice she had for other businesses like hers, she talked about mixing faith and facts. “You’ve got to do your research to find a trusted provider, but at the end of the day, it all comes down to a leap of faith, and sometimes you just have to do it.”

Finish off with a CTA to contact your business and/or a link to view more case studies.

Tips on how to write a case study that prospects will want to read

Alright, so that was a basic example of a case study, but there’s more to it than just the words that comprise it. Here are eight tips to write a great case study that prospects will want to read and that will help close deals.

1. Make it as easy as possible for the client

Just like when asking for reviews , it’s important to make the process as clear and easy as possible for the client. When you reach out, ask if you can use their story of achievement as a case study for your business.

Make the details as clear as possible, including:

The clearer the picture you paint for them, the more receptive they’ll be to sharing their time with you.

2. Include a prominent snapshot with the results

While a good case study is like a story, you don’t want to hold out on your reader until the end. You want them to know the results right off the bat, then they can read further to find out how those results were achieved. In the example below, the overall picture is made clear with the title ( The Loot Box Uses Ad Factory and Content Marketing to Drive Sales ) and the three stats below it.

how to write a case study - make results clear

Image source

3. Choose an interesting angle

Apart from kitchen remodeling and website makeovers, it can be hard to make a case study compelling. But there is always room for creativity.

The more compelling your angle, the better the story. The better the story, the more engaging your case study will be. In Mailchimp’s case study example below, the customer name (Good Dye Young), compelling headline , and expressive image all work together to give this case study life.

how to write a case study - mailchimp example

4. But make it relatable to all prospects

Your angle is the “hook” that will catch your audience’s attention, but it’s essential that ALL prospects can relate to and identify with the problems encountered by your case study’s “protagonist.” This means catering to your core demographics and target markets , and solving the problems most commonly experienced by your customers.

The same Mailchimp case study example above finishes off with an “advice for other small businesses” section:

how to write a case study - mailchimp example with advice section

5. Make them visually appealing (and consistent)

We already know that case studies aren’t the most exciting reads, so don’t make it worse by throwing a bunch of text and numbers onto a page. A good case study is skimmable, visual, and organized.

example of clean business case study

6. Be the supporting character, not the hero

Your company should always be positioned as a helping hand that helped the real hero of the story—your client—overcome their obstacle. There are two reasons this approach is so effective. Firstly, you want your audience to visualize themselves as the protagonist of the case study. This is much more difficult if you won’t stop talking about how great your company or product is. Secondly, adopting a more humble tone can help increase your credibility in the mind of the reader.

how to write a case study - shopify examples

7. Let your clients tell their own story

As a storyteller, it’s your job to craft a compelling narrative about how your featured client triumphed over the forces of evil using your product or service, but that doesn’t mean your protagonist doesn’t have their own voice.

Let them tell the story in their own words and then incorporate direct quotes into your narrative. This will break up your text, increase credibility, and make your protagonist a tangible character that readers can relate to. Take an interview style format and use paraphrasing and annotations so the text isn’t repetitive. Set up the segue and create room for your client’s quote, and let them do the rest.

View the full case study example here.

8. Have realistic expectations

Yes, we want to create a useful, helpful resource for prospective customers, but let’s be real—nobody’s winning a Pulitzer for a case study, and it won’t be going viral on social media, no matter how well-written it is.

Case studies are little more than tools to be used by either self-motivated prospects researching your company, or by sales professionals as tools to help convince prospects to convert. Nothing more. They’re designed for audiences that are already strongly considering becoming your customers, which is a smaller but more qualified group of people than your general audience.

So don’t be disheartened if your case study content doesn’t attract as much traffic or engagement as your best or even average content. They’re not meant to. But that doesn’t mean you should stop creating them or start obsessing over how to improve them.

Business case study examples

Here are some business case study examples that put the tips in this guide into play.

Call us biased, but LOCALiQ’s case study format is pretty rad. What we like about it:

marketing case study examples - localiq

Read this case study example.

You saw a sneak peek of this above! What we like about it:

After the “Good Dye Young” example earlier, how could we not include another Mailchimp case study? What we like about it:

marketing case study examples - mailchimp

Wrike takes the case study snapshot to the next level in this example. What we like about it:

marketing case study examples - wrike

Our final marketing case study example comes from Slintel, a go-to-market intelligence software. What we like about it:

marketing case study examples - slintel

View full case study here

Marketing case study templates

To make things easy for you, I’ve compiled the tips and examples into a marketing case study template, in document form, that you can use to write your own.

Use these case study examples & tips to get started with your own

No two businesses are alike, and case studies vary widely in terms of style, tone, and format . One thing that all marketing case studies share, however, is their purpose – to convince prospects that doing business with you is a good idea. With these case study steps, tips, examples, and templates, you’ll be well on your way to producing stories your prospects will actually want to read.

Meet The Author

Kristen mccormick.

Kristen is the Senior Managing Editor at WordStream, where she helps businesses to make sense of their online marketing and advertising. She specializes in SEO and copywriting and finds life to be exponentially more delightful on a bicycle.

See other posts by Kristen McCormick

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Writing A Case Study

Barbara P

A Complete Case Study Writing Guide With Examples

10 min read

Published on: Jun 14, 2019

Last updated on: Dec 19, 2022

Case Study

On This Page On This Page

Knowing how to write a case study is one of the core skills you will need in college. You may feel overwhelmed when you have to write a case study analysis because it requires good analytical and writing skills. But, with practice, you can master this art easily.

If you have to submit a case study soon and you have absolutely no idea where to start from, then this is the right place for you.

Relax and read this blog post to learn how to write a case study assignment in an efficient manner.

Case Study Definition

“What exactly is a case study?”

A case study critically assesses an event, a place, personality, or situation to draw a conclusion. It uses all background information to identify the key problems and recommend further action.

However, you must polish your analytical skills to master case study analysis.

A good case study demonstrates the excellent academic skills of students. But, planning is an important step, especially if you do not want to get into any complicated situation.

To help you write the case study easily, we have explained everything in detail in this blog. Here, you can learn all about the types of case studies and how to write one properly and successfully.

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Types of Case Study

Here are different  types of case study  that you are most likely to deal with in your academic years.

No matter what type you are writing, you will need to present detailed answers and explanations about the case study questions.

How to Start a Case Study?

“How is the case study done?”

Here are the steps that you need to follow for a smooth start to a case study writing process.

1. Identifying the Problem

The very first step in starting a case-control study is to identify the problem. For example, examining the incompetence of KFC to bring a substantial rise in the revenue.

2. Ponder the Root Source

Problems may originate from an incorrect marketing strategy or the flawed structure of the supply chain.

3. Create an Outline

Ask yourself, what should be the main points of the case study. You shouldn’t keep mixing methods and solutions in the essay. Gather at least 3 to 4 main points to explain in your case study and form an organized outline.

4. Potential Solutions

If you are a student, brainstorm and propose a solution to a social issue or any relevant topic. Keep in mind that different case study subjects have different requirements.

For example, in the business world, the marketing and sales teams write case studies to analyze how their products and services could solve the problems of potential customers. Or how their product would affect their social media audience.

How to Write a Case Study?

After making a basic case study analysis, there are some specific steps that you need to follow for writing a perfect case study. These are given below:

1. Introduction

Identify the key issue and write a solid thesis statement in 1-2 sentences. As with any other paper, your case study introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers.

Your introduction should not only identify the research problem and its significance. But also discuss why this specific case is being written and how it relates to addressing the problem.

A good introduction must answer the following questions:

2. Background Information

Incorporate relevant issues and facts and conduct extensive research on the problem. This is the point where you need to demonstrate how well you have researched your problem.

3. Alternative Solutions

Highlight alternative solutions for the problem to come up with the best solutions. Don’t forget to briefly outline the most viable solutions and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages.

4. Main Answer

Always provide a realistic answer to the question asked in the case. Explain the rationale for choosing the solution and justify it. Explain why this solution is proved to be the best and support it with solid evidence.

You can also utilize concepts from class discussions, lectures, and text readings to help your view. Make sure you have incorporated outside research and personal experiences if necessary.

5. Recommendations

Locate specific strategies to accomplish the solution. Suggest further actions and then outline the implementation plan.

Here are the points that you need to focus on when writing recommendations

These are the basic steps that you need to follow for writing any type of case study. However, you can add or remove the sections depending upon the requirements of the case study you are working on.

Case Study Research

A case study is a detailed study of a person, group, event, place, phenomenon, or organization. Case study methods are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative research methods, but in some cases, qualitative research is also used.

Case studies are great for describing, comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem.

Case study research revolves around single and multiple case studies. It also includes quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources, and benefits from the prior development of previous research.

Before starting writing your case study, research and think about what you want to learn or prove. You might be aiming to learn how a company develops a new product. You need to base your research questions around the purpose that you want to achieve.

Case Study Format

The only thing that matters, in the end, is the score. Figure out the required  case study format  and strictly adhere to it.

APA and MLA are the leading case study formats used in various institutions.

Writing a Case Study

Abstract adds to the spice of the paper. Try to craft a solid, brief, and sound abstract as it has immense power to impress or annoy your professors. A common reader also usually reads abstracts to decide if he wants to study the paper.

Have a look at the following components involved in proofreading. It can remove the mistakes and typos of your paper.

How to Cite a Case Study?

Citing sources is an integral part. Four kinds of formatting techniques are used to cite case studies:

Case Study Outline

Let’s explore the way an outline is constructed in problem-oriented papers. Make sure that you outline your case study tactfully. You may find thousands of case study templates on the internet for your help.

Here are the main parts of mainstream educational case studies that you can follow.

case study outline

Case Study Analysis

A successful case study analyzes a real-life situation and provides a great opportunity to gather evidence. It challenges existing assumptions about a problem and provides a new set of recommendations.

Critical thinking and analytical skills matter the most in case studies. They differentiate ordinary paper from outstanding one.

Ensure that your analysis goes through the following techniques.

Thoroughly read the case and brainstorm ideas for the different solutions. Do not rely on one solution.

Locate ideas that sound the most interesting, as they will form the solution. Be extra careful, as picking the wrong solution is the most common mistake.

Don’t rush to write the case study neatly in the first step. Take some time to build a neat one.

Case Study Examples

Examples are a great way to learn how to do a case study. That’s why we have also compiled a bunch of interesting  case study examples  that you can go through before starting writing.

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Case Study Introduction Example

The introduction is the first thing that your readers are going to interact with. So, it is important to formulate a captivating introduction to draw the reader’s attention. Make sure to include a thesis statement and summarize the outcome into 1-2 sentences.

You can also refer to the following example of a case study and learn how to write an interesting introduction.

UX Case Study Example

UX case studies are a great example of design work that designers include in their portfolios. To give you more insights, here is a UX case study design example that you can refer to.

Amazon Case Study Example

Are you looking for an Amazon case study example? Look at this detailed example and learn how to write a case study analysis.

Business Case Study Example

In particular, a business case study focuses on telling a story of how your product or service helped people in achieving their short or long-term goals. You can also read this example and understand the essential elements of writing a great case study.

APA Format Case Study Example

Wondering how to write a case study in APA format? Keep in mind that there are certain APA format guidelines that you need to follow throughout.

Refer to this APA format case study example for more help.

Psychology Case Study Example

A case study in psychology refers to the use of a descriptive research approach for an in-depth analysis of a subject such as a person, group, or organization.

Below we have provided a great example for you to learn how to write a case study in psychology.

Medical Case Study Example

A medical case study is a detailed report of the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. If you need to submit a medical case study soon, the following example will help you start the writing process.

Get Expert Case Study Writing Help

We hope now the idea of making a case study would not haunt you. By now, you must be confident enough to take your pen and start working on your case study. However, it may take some time to develop and polish your craft.

Follow the rules defined in this guide and practice writing case studies.

Case study writing can be tricky as it is designed to help students demonstrate an understanding of a particular topic and how it affects the surrounding. Since it is such a difficult paper to write - an increasing number of students turn to case study writing services for help.

If you are also facing difficulty writing a great case study, then the best option is to hire an  online writing service . Expert case study writers at  can help you write your study according to your requirements and ahead of your deadline.

Hire our  essay writer  now to get a perfect case study on time!

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the purpose of a case study.

The objective of a case study is to do intensive research on a specific matter, such as individuals or communities. It's often used for academic purposes where you want the reader to know all factors involved in your subject while also understanding the processes at play.

What are the sources of a case study?

Some common sources of a case study include:

What is the sample size of a case study?

A normally acceptable size of a case study is 30-50. However, the final number depends on the scope of your study and the on-ground demographic realities.

Barbara P (Literature, Marketing)

Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.

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case study writing sample

How to Write a Case Study: A Step-by-Step Guide (+ Examples)

by Todd Brehe

on Aug 23, 2022

If you want to learn how to write a case study that engages prospective clients, demonstrates that you can solve real business problems, and showcases the results you deliver, this guide will help.

We’ll give you a proven template to follow, show you how to conduct an engaging interview, and give you several examples and tips for best practices.

Let’s start with the basics.

case study writing sample

What is a Case Study?

A business case study is simply a story about how you successfully delivered a solution to your client.

Case studies start with background information about the customer, describe problems they were facing, present the solutions you developed, and explain how those solutions positively impacted the customer’s business.

Do Marketing Case Studies Really Work?

Absolutely. A well-written case study puts prospective clients into the shoes of your paying clients, encouraging them to engage with you. Plus, they:

Case studies serve your clients too. For example, they can generate positive publicity and highlight the accomplishments of line staff to the management team. Your company might even throw in a new product/service discount, or a gift as an added bonus.

But don’t just take my word for it. Let’s look at a few statistics and success stories:

5 Winning Case Study Examples to Model

Before we get into the nuts and bolts of how to write a case study, let’s go over a few examples of what an excellent one looks like.

The five case studies listed below are well-written, well-designed, and incorporate a time-tested structure.

1. Lane Terralever and Pinnacle at Promontory

case study example Lane Terralever

This case study example  from Lane Terralever  incorporates images to support the content and effectively uses subheadings to make the piece scannable.

2. WalkMe Mobile and Hulyo

case study example walkme mobile

This case study  from WalkMe Mobile  leads with an engaging headline and the three most important results the client was able to generate.

In the first paragraph, the writer expands the list of accomplishments encouraging readers to learn more.

3. CurationSuite Listening Engine

case study example curationsuite listening engine

This is an example of a well-designed printable case study . The client, specific problem, and solution are called out in the left column and summarized succinctly.

4. Brain Traffic and ASAE

case study example brain traffic

This long format case study (6 pages) from Brain Traffic  summarizes the challenges, solutions, and results prominently in the left column. It uses testimonials and headshots of the case study participants very effectively.

5. Adobe and Home Depot

case study example adobe home depot

This case study  from Adobe and Home Depot  is a great example of combining video, attention-getting graphics, and long form writing. It also uses testimonials and headshots well.

Now that we’ve gone over the basics and showed a few great case study examples you can use as inspiration, let’s roll up our sleeves and get to work.

A Case Study Structure That Pros Use

Let’s break down the structure of a compelling case study:

Choose Your Case Study Format

In this guide, we focus on written case studies. They’re affordable to create, and they have a proven track record. However, written case studies are just one of four case study formats to consider:

If you have the resources, video (like the Adobe and Home Depot example above) and podcast case studies can be very compelling. Hearing a client discuss in his or her own words how your company helped is an effective content marketing strategy

Infographic case studies are usually one-page images that summarize the challenge, proposed solution, and results. They tend to work well on social media.

Follow a Tried-and-True Case Study Template

The success story structure we’re using incorporates a “narrative” or “story arc” designed to suck readers in and captivate their interest.

Note:  I recommend creating a blog post or landing page on your website that includes the text from your case study, along with a downloadable PDF. Doing so helps people find your content when they perform Google and other web searches.

There are a few simple SEO strategies that you can apply to your blog post that will optimize your chances of being found. I’ll include those tips below.

Craft a Compelling Headline

The headline should capture your audience’s attention quickly. Include the most important result you achieved, the client’s name, and your company’s name. Create several examples, mull them over a bit, then pick the best one. And, yes, this means writing the headline is done at the very end.

SEO  Tip:  Let’s say your firm provided “video editing services” and you want to target this primary keyword. Include it, your company name, and your client’s name in the case study title.

Write the Executive Summary

This is a mini-narrative using an abbreviated version of the Challenge + Solution + Results model (3-4 short paragraphs). Write this after you complete the case study.

SEO  Tip:  Include your primary keyword in the first paragraph of the Executive Summary.

Provide the Client’s Background

Introduce your client to the reader and create context for the story.

List the Customer’s Challenges and Problems

Vividly describe the situation and problems the customer was dealing with, before working with you.

SEO  Tip:  To rank on page one of Google for our target keyword, review the questions listed in the “People also ask” section at the top of Google’s search results. If you can include some of these questions and their answers into your case study, do so. Just make sure they fit with the flow of your narrative.

Detail Your Solutions

Explain the product or service your company provided, and spell out how it alleviated the client’s problems. Recap how the solution was delivered and implemented. Describe any training needed and the customer’s work effort.

Show Your Results

Detail what you accomplished for the customer and the impact your product/service made. Objective, measurable results that resonate with your target audience are best.

List Future Plans

Share how your client might work with your company in the future.

Give a Call-to-Action

Clearly detail what you want the reader to do at the end of your case study.

Talk About You

Include a “press release-like” description of your client’s organization, with a link to their website. For your printable document, add an “About” section with your contact information.

And that’s it. That’s the basic structure of any good case study.

Now, let’s go over how to get the information you’ll use in your case study.

How to Conduct an Engaging Case Study Interview

One of the best parts of creating a case study is talking with your client about the experience. This is a fun and productive way to learn what your company did well, and what it can improve on, directly from your customer’s perspective.

Here are some suggestions for conducting great case study interviews:

When Choosing a Case Study Subject, Pick a Raving Fan

Your sales and marketing team should know which clients are vocal advocates willing to talk about their experiences. Your customer service and technical support teams should be able to contribute suggestions.

Clients who are experts with your product/service make solid case study candidates. If you sponsor an online community, look for product champions who post consistently and help others.

When selecting a candidate, think about customer stories that would appeal to your target audience. For example, let’s say your sales team is consistently bumping into prospects who are excited about your solution, but are slow to pull the trigger and do business with you.

In this instance, finding a client who felt the same way, but overcame their reluctance and contracted with you anyway, would be a compelling story to capture and share.

Prepping for the Interview

If you’ve ever seen an Oprah interview, you’ve seen a master who can get almost anyone to open up and talk. Part of the reason is that she and her team are disciplined about planning.

Before conducting a case study interview, talk to your own team about the following:

Pro Tip:  Tee up your client. Send them the questions in advance.

Providing questions to clients before the interview helps them prepare, gather input from other colleagues if needed, and feel more comfortable because they know what to expect.

In a moment, I’ll give you an exhaustive list of interview questions. But don’t send them all. Instead, pare the list down to one or two questions in each section and personalize them for your customer.

Nailing the Client Interview

Decide how you’ll conduct the interview. Will you call the client, use Skype or Facetime, or meet in person? Whatever mode you choose, plan the process in advance.

Make sure you record the conversation. It’s tough to lead an interview, listen to your contact’s responses, keep the conversation flowing, write notes, and capture all that the person is saying.

A recording will make it easier to write the client’s story later. It’s also useful for other departments in your company (management, sales, development, etc.) to hear real customer feedback.

Use open-ended questions that spur your contact to talk and share. Here are some real-life examples:


Initial Challenges

Results, Improvements, Progress

Future Plans

Honest Feedback

During the interview, use your contact’s responses to guide the conversation.

Once the interview is complete, it’s time to write your case study.

How to Write a Case Study… Effortlessly

Case study writing is not nearly as difficult as many people make it out to be. And you don’t have to be Stephen King to do professional work. Here are a few tips:

Also, make sure to do the following:

Add Testimonials, Quotes, and Visuals

The more you can use your contact’s words to describe the engagement, the better. Weave direct quotes throughout your narrative.

Strive to be conversational when you’re writing case studies, as if you’re talking to a peer.

Include images in your case study that visually represent the content and break up the text. Photos of the company, your contact, and other employees are ideal.

If you need to incorporate stock photos, here are three resources:

And if you need more, check out Smart Blogger’s excellent resource: 17 Sites with High-Quality, Royalty-Free Stock Photos .

Proofread and Tighten Your Writing

Make sure there are no grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors. If you need help, consider using a grammar checker tool like Grammarly .

My high school English teacher’s mantra was “tighten your writing.” She taught that impactful writing is concise and free of weak, unnecessary words . This takes effort and discipline, but will make your writing stronger.

Also, keep in mind that we live in an attention-diverted society. Before your audience will dive in and read each paragraph, they’ll first scan your work.  Use subheadings  to summarize information, convey meaning quickly, and pull the reader in.

Be Sure to Use Best Practices

Consider applying the following best practices to your case study:

Get Client Approval

After you have a final draft, send it to the client for review and approval. Incorporate any edits they suggest.

Use or modify the following “Consent to Publish” form to get the client’s written sign-off:

Consent to Publish

Case Study  Title:

I hereby confirm that I have reviewed the case study listed above and on behalf of the [Company Name], I provide full permission for the work to be published, in whole or in part, for the life of the work, in all languages and all formats by [Company publishing the case study].

By signing this form, I affirm that I am authorized to grant full permission.

Company Name:

E-mail Address:

Common Case Study Questions (& Answers)

We’ll wrap things up with a quick Q&A. If you have a question I didn’t answer, be sure to leave it in a blog comment below.

Should I worry about print versions of my case studies?


As we saw in the CurationSuite  and Brain Traffic  examples earlier, case studies get downloaded, printed, and shared. Prospects can and will judge your book by its cover.

So, make sure your printed case study is eye-catching and professionally designed. Hire a designer  if necessary.

Why are good case studies so effective?

Case studies work because people trust them.

They’re not ads, they’re not press releases, and they’re not about how stellar your company is.

Plus, everyone likes spellbinding stories with a hero [your client], a conflict [challenges], and a riveting resolution [best solution and results].

How do I promote my case study?

After you’ve written your case study and received the client’s approval to use it, you’ll want to get it in front of as many eyes as possible.

Try the following:

Ready to Write a Case Study That Converts?

If you want to stand out and you want to win business, case studies should be an integral part of your sales and marketing efforts.

Hopefully, this guide answered some of your questions and laid out a path that will make it faster and easier for your team to create professional, sales-generating content.

Now it’s time to take action and get started. Gather your staff, select a client, and ask a contact to participate. Plan your interview and lead an engaging conversation. Write up your client’s story, make them shine, and then share it.

Get better at the case study process by doing it more frequently. Challenge yourself to write at least one case study every two months.

As you do, you’ll be building a valuable repository of meaningful, powerful content. These success stories will serve your business in countless ways, and for years to come.

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Written by Todd Brehe

6 thoughts on “how to write a case study: a step-by-step guide (+ examples)”.

Just the guide I needed for case studies! Great job with this one!

Hey Todd, great post here. I liked that you listed some prompting questions. Really demonstrates you know what you’re talking about. There are a bunch of Ultimate Guides out there who list the theories such as interview your customer, talk about results, etc. but really don’t help you much.

Thanks, Todd. I’ve planned a case study and this will really come in handy. Bookmarked.

Very good read. Thanks, Todd. Are there any differences between a case study and a use case, by the way?

Hi Todd, Very well-written article. This is the ultimate guide I have read till date. It has actionable points rather than some high-level gyan. Creating a new case study always works better when (1) you know the structure to follow and (2) you work in a group of 3-4 members rather than individually. Thanks for sharing this guide.

Hi Todd. Very useful guide. I learn step by step. Looking forward to continually learning from you and your team. Thanks

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Case Study Hub | Samples, Examples and Writing Tips

Health management: business case study.


The Australian Government faces foremost challenges in the healthcare’s delivery and funding. The Australian system of healthcare is highly rated at the global scale, as supported by the low death rate of the newborns and sustained raised avg. life anticipation. These developments are now threatened since the health scheme suffers from an aging population, the growing severe diseases’ burden, and the increasingly obsolete society of the health services (Armstrong, et al., 2007). In September 2015, the Australian population was 23,860,100. Between 1994 and 2013, Australia’s population increased by 30% (Maria, et al., 2017)

The average Australian can expect to live 73 years of a healthy life. Definite life expectancy is specific on a decade longer; nevertheless, this longevity is regularly accompanied by surging disability from severe diseases, morbidity, death and health care expenses. Much of the growth in healthcare expenses could be attributed to medical technology’s advances. Medical mistakes in Australia cost annually more than $1 billion (probably $2 billion).15 The Australian Healthcare’s Quality Study found that 1/2 of these mistakes was possibly avoidable. (Armstrong, et al., 2007) Continue reading →

Case Study on Zappos – How They Did It

Question One In the case of Zappos Company, Tony Hsieh has shown excellent leadership where he has relied on several strategies to ensure the provision of the best experience in the shoe and clothing industry. As such, in the case study, the author details that, “Hsieh revealed that the company has focused on providing “WOW” services to their clients despite the situation.” For example, “the CEO claimed that some of the customers make orders late in the night where the delivery is done within eight hours.” Most importantly, Hsieh has ensured the strict adherence to the organization’s policies to outdo succeed in the market. Continue reading →

Case Study – Zara International: Fashion at the Speed of Light

Question One In the case of Zara International, the company has effectively indicated the application of classical management by requiring their workers to continue producing what is required for the market. As such, according to the case study, “through its 200 professionals, the firm has relied on their decisions to feed the global fashion industry.” Subsequently, in the company, the leadership has chosen to strictly remain within its decisions given the presence of loyal employees. Continue reading →

Apple Inc Case Study Sample

Question One In the case of Apple Company, the organization’s culture has largely played to their advantage as evidently seen in the market. As such, the concept of renovation has aided the organization’s competition level due to the presence of other staunch players that include Windows (Yin). For example, in the case study, the author claims that, “inventing as unique IOS has contributed to the firm having loyal customers in the industry.” Most importantly, continued production of new devices has shown the businesses high creativity level. Continue reading →

Case Study – Amazon: One E-Store to Rule Them All

Question One In the online retail business, Amazon has emerged to be a problem solver through providing their customers with a variety of products across various countries. For example, the author argues that, “the company has made websites for specific nations in a bid to serve their clients effectively.” In essence, hurdles related to websites unfamiliarity have not been experienced by the organization’s target customers.

Question Two In the case of Amazon, its CEO Bezos has shown the concept of systematic and intuitive thinking through the various innovations the organization has implemented in its course (Patel, Sachin, and Ratish 110). Notably, the firm begun as an online books retail store where it has developed to launching competition with Apple by producing Kindle and Kindle Fire. Continue reading →

Schizophrenia Spectrum & Other Psychotic Disorders

Case 1 Stephen Walker is a 19-year-old white male belonging to middle economic class, and currently a college student. He is a physically active young man who is involved in strenuous activities such as weight lifting, break dancing, snowboarding, and skateboarding. Two years ago, the patient sought medical attention from a physician citing in the wrist. Two years later, Walker has visited ten physicians complaining of physical pain in various parts of his body such as wrist, shoulder, knees, and perennials among others. He mentions that he sustains these injuries during his physical activities. Walker believes that, two years ago, the government implanted a monitoring chip in his body to control him. He argues that the reason why he keeps falling is that whenever he does things that the CIA does not want him to do, the chip sends impulses in this body, making him fall. The also hears voices telling him that he has a chip inside his body. There is no evidence that Walker has been abusing alcohol or any narcotic.

Diagnose(s) : 295.90 (F20.9) Schizophrenia, disillusion of persecution, auditory hallucination, for more than 6 months. Continue reading →

Internal Memo – Natureview Farm Case Study

Natureview Farm is one of the world’s most popular organic yoghurt manufacturers. The company has utilized several competitive advantages that have helped the organization handle the competition pressure posed by the market rivals. Subsequently, Natureview has seized the opportunity to grow the company’s annual revenue. The other aspect that has enhanced the success of Natureview is brand positioning. The product shelf-life is more than 50 days as compared to the 30 days offered by competitive products. Besides, Natureview is considered the leading brand in the channel of natural diets with a market share of more than 24% (Fleming, 2019). Lastly, the organization has blossomed in a business which significantly focuses on personal relationships and guerrilla marketing to increase the popularity of the brand. However, the company seeks to boost its revenue by about 50%, but it is still not clear which product line should be more prioritized to help reach the target. The manager should focus on increasing brand customer base by developing a new product line or targeting a new market. Continue reading →

Comcast Case Study

History and Background Comcast began in 1963 and is known as the Comcast Corporation. The company was formerly named the American Cable Systems and has its headquarters in Pennsylvania. The company started as a small cable system company in Mississippi and its founders are Julian A. Brodsky and Ralph J. Roberts; two individuals with remarkable minds. Upon moving to Philadelphia in 1969, the name changed to the present-day Comcast Corporation. It is one of the largest cable television providers in the United States which deals with communication products and entertainment services. However, the business had its success based on various strategic investments done in the past to ensure its growth over the years. These investments include the acquisition of rival systems such as the Storer Communications way back in 1988, the Group W. Cable in 198 and Jones Intercable Incorporation in 1999 among others. Continue reading →

DonorsChoose Case Analysis Paper

Question 1 Accountability is an essential aspect of organisational management. Charles Best ensured that there is transparency in DonorsChoose. The recipient must justify the use of finances and resources raised. Secondly, it is necessary for an emphasis on the mission and vision of a firm. Focused management fosters resourcefulness and improvement leading to organisational success.

Question 2 The best aspect about the operations of DonorsChoose is the elimination of middlemen, allowing teachers and donors to connect. As a result of their platform, education in public schools has been improved. The commitment of the organisation led to the utilization of 100% of the resources contributed. Continue reading →

The Peyton Tuthill Case

My essay on the Petyon Tuthill Case will address four main questions: What was the offender’s reason for committing this crime? Was he organized or disorganized during and after the crime? Was I convinced that Gerald Simpson was the offender, why or why not; and what lessons can be learned from this investigation and the outcome? Having listened to a series of audio recordings wherein the case is discussed, and after consulting the following sources: Sexual homicide: Patterns and motives, Burgess, A. W., Ressler, R. K., & Douglas, J. E. (2014) and Sexual murder: Catathymic and compulsive homicides, Schlesinger, L. B. (2004), my conclusions are that: Dante Page committed the crime out of desperation. His behavior while committing the crime was initially organized and methodical, and later became more reckless and disorganized. Based on the initial evidence, I was certain that the offender was Gerald Simpson. The investigation and the outcome demonstrated that DNA evidence is a powerful tool in confirming the identity of the perpetrator of a crime. Continue reading →

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9+ Case Study Assignment Examples on How to Write a Case Study

Case Study Assignment Examples

Table Of Contents

What is a case study, what are different types of case study, how to write a case study.

Who Can Help in Case Study Writing?

How to write a case study assignment with 9+ examples.

Writing a case study is not rocket science. But, not everyone can accomplish this mission with the best scores. Have you ever wondered why? If yes, then in this blog, you can know how to draft a perfect one with case study assignment examples for each section from case study writing online help experts of Assignment Prime . So, keep reading to know more about it… 

A case study is basically a research model that issued to gain in-depth knowledge on any topic. This is most commonly implemented in science and social sciences. This method focuses on conducting empirical analysis and acquiring its real-life context. In simple words, this is a descriptive analysis conducted on a person, group, or any organization. You can understand this better from our academic case study examples available on our website. Now, based on the purpose and objectives of the research, case studies are categorized into different types which are explained below.

There are mainly four different types of case studies that you come across during your academic course period. They are:

1. Illustrative case studies

Illustrative case studies are also known as descriptive case studies. They mainly focus on one or a few particular points of a topic and explain the same to the audience in a simpler way. 

2. Exploratory case studies

This is a condensed form of case studies for a large scale investigation. This is used to understand the questions and select further requirements and details for the actual investigation. This is thus conducted for a sample number but the results can be as convincing as the actual investigation. 

3. Cumulative case studies

In this type of case study, the information is gathered from various case studies that are previously conducted. The purpose of this type of case study is to generalize all the previous ones conducted on this topic. This facilitates gaining better knowledge on the topic with minimum effort and time. 

4. Critical instance case studies

This is another type of case study where you focus on examining a situation or any particular event.  Here, the main purpose is not generalizing but instead about raising a question or challenge on the previous work. This is most commonly used for the purpose of answering cause and effect questions. 

Now, these are the famous types of case studies, there are more which can be found online. You can find case study examples with solutions for all these types on our website. Now, the next question that arises is how to write a case study. Here is how you do it.

Most Interesting Blog:  7 Must-Watch On-Screen Appearances Of Stephen Hawking 

When you are writing any case study, there is a common approach you follow, which is: 

Now, here are case study examples for students that will help you know how to draft your case study and the points to remember while doing so.

What Are Some Case Study Writing Tips? 9+ Case Study Assignment Examples

So, here are some tips and case study samples on how to make your case study a perfect document. Along with each point, there is an example to help you understand the same.

1. Focus on interesting information

When you are writing a case study, focus on adding some interesting information for the reader such that they get to know more about the topic. Like in the given example, the types of innovation: product, process, and strategy are key takeaways for the reader on the topic ‘ critical issues in business management .’ You can also get a detailed case study on this topic from our samples section.

case study writing sample

2. Include strong and supportive points

The main purpose of case studies is to deliver maximum information in minimum time and effort. So, it is very important to add the most important and strong points in your content to add value to that. In the given example on the topic, ‘Strategic thinking’, an overview of the company is provided. Following that are the two main positions of the framework analysis in this topic. These are just the top two positions, for a complete case study, turn to our samples section and search for the topic: ‘ Strategic thinking .’

case study writing sample

3. Adding proper references

It is obvious that you refer to various sources when you are writing a case study to gather relevant and reliable information. While doing so, make sure to cite all those sources properly in the work to avoid the risk of plagiarism. In the given example you can take a look at the citations in the content under the issues and challenges section of the topic “ soft skills in retail industry .” Want to read more on it? Turn to Assignment Prime’s case study assignment examples provided in the samples section.  

case study writing sample

4. Discuss the factsheet of the company

When you are writing a case study, it is very important that you explain about the company in a detailed manner. Right from the fact sheet, to strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats and any other factors that affect the company, you should cover every detail of the company. In the given example, we can observe the details of the company such as names, owner structure, history and background of the company, it’s activities and business location. If you want to know more about dragon-den-series, take a look at our case study on dragon-den-series in our samples section.

case study writing sample

5. Value-added content about the company

Case studies can be made more interesting with value-added content about the companies such as its goals, working process, buildup process and many more. The below-mentioned example explains the time taken by this organization to complete different activities. And the second image includes the details of the project plan and budget. To know more details on the same, go to our case study samples and read the one on foundation of business .

case study writing sample

6. Include interesting elements

You can include or some interesting elements to your case study and make it more interesting such as table,s graphs, stats and so on. In the below example, you can take a look at the difference between friedman theory and freeman theory explained neatly in form of a table. You can read more about this from our case study assignment examples on the topic: social responsibility of business level .

case study writing sample

7. Highlight important points

Make sure to highlight important points int he case study to bring reader’s attention to the important information. This way, they can analyze and predict what to expect from the case study.In the provided example, you can observe how, ‘company description, industry analysis, market and competition, strategies and goal, product and services, and marketing and sales’ are highlighted int he case study. To know more details on the topic, ‘ Launching new business venture ’you can turn to us.

case study writing sample

8. Conduct in-depth research

Perform a detailed analysis on the company and gather information on strategic analysis, competitive analysis and other such major areas which impact the company. You can consider implementing models like SWOT, PESTLE, Porter’s Five Forces and many more which are apt for the topic and the organization as well. In the given example, you can observe the SWOT analysis conducted on the organization for the topic, global marketing and digital business for case study writing.

case study writing sample

9. Better the brand, better your grades

This is the scenario, when you are not assigned with a topic. You can choose a good brand of any field relevant to your subject. This way, you can find already written content to refer and also you can easily write about it when you are familiar with it. Similarly, in the given example, the brand chosen is Marks and Spencer which is a very renowned fashion retailer in the world. You can read the complete case study on global marketing and digital business of Marks and Spencer in our samples section.

case study writing sample

10. Case Study should be presentable and professional

Your case study should be professional in context to content, fonts, size, shape, structure and other details which impact its appearance. This is because the first look of your case study has only a few seconds to impress your professor. So, make sure to use the right structure and organization skills. In the below case study assignment example, you can find how the case study is drafted on the topic, business activity monitoring in a presentable style. This is not done, for the complete document, refer to our website.

case study writing sample

Now, that you know the tips for writing a case study,take a brief look into the different sections of a case study you should not miss.

What Are the Different Sections in a Case Study?

1. synopsis of the case study.

In this section, you outline the case study, describe about it, and your field of study. You specify the issues and the ones you are focusing on in this case study and the theory you would be using for the same.

2. Findings of the research

In this section, you analyze the topic, research, mention the findings, go through them and filter the ones appropriate and useful for the research. 

3. Discussion on the topic

Here, you discuss about the topic, findings, problems and come out with the solutions, your approach to the problems and other such details regarding the case study. 

4. Conclusion of the study

In this section, you focus on the conclusion part of the study.  Here you emphasize the topic question and the solution you came up with for it. 

5. Recommendations for information

There should be a section, where you add the recommendations for the reader on topics relevant to your subject such that if they want to read more in detail about it, then they can refer to it. 

6. Implementation of the findings

This section is dedicated to include details of the tasks and estimations of time and costs if applied for the case study work. 

7. References of the sources

Maintain a separate section where you include all the sources from where you have referred to gather information. Doing this can help you be confident of the reliable sources and safe from the academic crime of doing plagiarism. 

8. Appendices if any

If there is any information related to your research that may alter your study but can be related to the topic, then add it in this section. 

The whole case study writing process may seem tedious and tough, right? If you feel exhausted from all this and realize this is not your cup of tea, then you can seek case study writing online help from experts. Wondering how? Read the below section for more details… 

Assignment Prime has been in academic writing services for over a decade. It has over 4500 experts from various subject fields. All these experts have pursued their degrees from renowned universities across the globe. With years of experience, subject expertise and flair for writing, our professional writers have been helping numerous students across the globe.We provide a solution for all your academic troubles right from topic selection, essay writing, assignments, thesis, research paper, to case study writing help; everything academic trouble can be solved with us. 

Wondering what to do? Just give us a call, drop a text or send mail to us and we will get back to you. In case, you want to take a look at our work, the examples above can guide you to our samples section or you can directly visit our site and move to this section. Here you can find all our sample works done by high-quality professionals on various topics from different subject fields.That is not it, we have amazing discounts and user-friendly guarantees which you should go through once. Now, with so much waiting or you, what is stopping you? Contact us right away!

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The Zappos Case Study

Experts in this subject field are ready to write an original essay following your instructions to the dot!

The following is a case study of Zappos, an Amazon subsidiary and online shoe shop. One of the largest businesses to implement holacracy in their organizational structure is Zappos. The consequences of implementing this organizational behavior have been inconsistent, with some employees preferring the outcomes while others were discouraged and bewildered by the idea to the point of quitting their positions when the system was implemented. The organizational principles of holocracy and how they are used at Zappos will be covered in this essay. The implementation of holacracy has exposed some challenges that are inherent in the structure, challenges which involve augmented bureaucracy, confusion and an extra workload. Zappos would is better niched through adopting the general idea of Teal organization of which holacracy is a subset and which is less inflexible with regards to its flexibility.

Zappos Case Study

There was an emergence of specialization and division of labor during the Industrial Revolution. Around the same time, it led to new kinds of human organizations. Inquiries into how individuals act in organizations uncovered that there exist hard and soft sides to organizational performance and the quality of organizational production is reliant on the quality of the staff and the level of utilization. Organizational behavior studies how people relate to groups to create more efficient business organizations. The main tenet behind the study of organizational behavior is that a scientific perspective can be applied when managing staff. Organizational behavior theories can be utilized for human resource purposes to make the most of the individual members of the group. There are various philosophies and models of organizational behavior which focus on increasing job satisfaction, augmenting job performance, encouraging leadership and promoting innovation. So as to realize the desired results, managers may take up varying tactics which may include the modification of compensation structures, reorganization of groups and changing performance evaluation. Holacracy as an organizational behavior theory refers to a system that advocates for self-management in organizations. The system substitutes the conventional management hierarchy with a new peer-to-peer operational model which distributes authority. Zappos, an online shoe retailer, applied this system and had mixed results. Zappos’ case will be studied, and the results of the adoption of the system will be demonstrated. Recommendations on the way forward will then be offered. is an online shoe retailer established in 1999 by Nick Swinmurn and headed by CEO Tony Hsieh. Zappos shunned the top down hierarchal management choosing instead to adopt a peer-to-peer operational model where authority is distributed among its workers, a system known as holacracy. Despite this system creating an inclusive work culture where decisions are made collectively, and employee’s motivation is through peer pressure rather than micromanagement, holacracy has proven to be rigid, overly complex while taking a long time to implement.

Issues and Problems

This case study examines the results of the adoption of the holocracy organizational structure in Zappos, an online shoe retailer. Zappos adopted holacracy to counter the push and pull inherent in the traditional pyramid business models which often stifle the ideation process and discourage experimentation. The advantage of this system is that it hands operational decisions to staff (Velarde, 2016). The staff operates within self-organizing circles which can be compared to departments. Every circle is allowed to make decisions within the boundaries of its responsibilities as long as they do not expressly impact other circles or the business (Robertson, 2015). Theoretically, the circles interact guided by some strict formal rules. Because of the freedom to make decisions, holacracy ought to make it easier to brainstorm solutions and offer fast and efficient ways to deliberate, assess and put in place new ideas. Ideally, it is supposed to end up in a culture of constant improvement. Holacracy has some cultural advantages too. Everyone is granted an equal opportunity to voice their opinions during the meetings with decision making being a collaborative and highly engaging process. Nevertheless, there are various issues inherent in holacracy. The company faced transitional challenges with a substantial number of employees leaving the firm. There were also criticisms on the rigidity of the meeting processes and complexity of rules. The bureaucracy that holacracy is supposed to eliminate is surprisingly very much inherent in the system.

Holacracy is a brain child of Brian Robertson, a software engineer. He contends that this system motivates individuals to function as a computer operating system. The chief setback to such super-efficiency is the intricacy of human emotion, and therefore holacracy seeks to compartmentalize or stamp out the ways in which our humanity impedes our capacity to produce (Robertson, 2015). In late 2013, Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh announced that the online shoe retailer would be shedding traditional manager roles. In light of the shedding off of these roles, managers and direct reporting would be replaced by “lead links” who supervise “circles” or particular projects that needed particular “roles” to be occupied (Guzman, 2016). Within the system, staff acted similarly to entrepreneurs, and they were encouraged to find multiple roles.

In 2015, the CEO felt that the transition into the system was moving too slowly and consequently told the staff that they were to adopt the new system or opt for a severance pay. The change to the system left the staff dazed and demoralized by the unrelenting pace of change (Reingold, 2016). Converse to what Brian Robertson contended with regards to holacracy, eliminating the human component does not make it go away. It results in an air of antipathy. About eighteen percent of his employees decided to leave, with dissatisfaction being a major reason. Among other things, this leads to a sharp drop in the company’s standing in the Fortune’s Best Company to Work For list. A member of staff who left the company described the system as a social experiment that resulted in uncertainty and chaos. Moreover, the transition from the traditional system has resulted in conflict between the previous stipulations and a culture that is grounded in tolerating the unruliness that is inherent in personal expression (Guzman, 2016). Another employee, a senior HR manager at Zappos criticized the system for being not particularly suited for the organization, and the fact that it put a strong emphasis on its governing guidelines instead of people. The process of conducting meetings under this system has been is rigid due to the stipulations behind the system. This means that there is “no natural, back-and-forth conversation that begets camaraderie, respect, trust and connection” (Groth, 2016).

In describing some of the politics still inherent in the system, Nox Voortella a former sales planner at Zappos was optimistic about the prospects of holacracy but soon she changed her mind. She noted that the old managers around her were getting increasingly insecure and tried to rearrange management. This action had the effect of forcing out the leaders that would have been better positioned to rally people to embrace the system with the managers left behind having little to offer. Another setback with regards to holacracy is that it does not possess vital components such as the compensation process. It does not place a premium on rank or how much money one manages, and there are no official performance evaluations. Zappos established their method where the staff is remunerated as per the skills based on the market rate.

Some workers have become disgruntled because they saw holacracy as an attempt to gamify the company with its various novel systems. For instance, there is a system where the employees are given badges as per their verified skillset and “people points” which is a currency which employees use in filling out the roles within the firm (Groth, 2016). These points determine how the staff apportions their time, and it also defines their pay. Staff with too many of unassigned people points goes to “the beach” where they are given the option of either finding other positions within the firm or leaving. This situation of unpredictability tends to create worried employees.

In its effort to boost efficacy and eradicate human emotion, holacracy foists layers of bureaucracy and injects pointless psychological burdens on the staff. A management consultant to Zappos advised the CEO in the course of the rollout of that the average member of staff was overworked and undertrained therefore if was both foolish and inhumane to ask them to be conversant with the management equivalent of Dungeons and Dragons on top of their usual work.

Zappos’ CEO in a recent interview talked about moving towards the “Teal” organizational structure (Reingold, 2016). Teal organizations have three main defining features namely self-management, wholeness and evolutionary purpose. With regards to self-management, teal organizations function with a structure that is grounded in peer relationships. They establish systems and habits where individuals are highly independent in their sphere and are responsible for cooperating with others. Power and control are entrenched increasingly throughout the organizations, and it is currently not relegated to the top management. Under wholeness, Teal organizations ask people to embrace their wholeness. They establish surroundings where individuals are free to fully express themselves which often results in high levels of creativity, passion, and energy at the workplace (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2015). Finally, under evolutionary purpose, Teal organizations ground their strategies on what they perceive to be the immediate needs of their surroundings. Flexible practices that work to perceive and respond to substitute the apparatus of targets, incentives, budgets, targets and plans (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2015). Ironically, by placing less emphasis on shareholder value and bottom line, they spawn fiscal results that are ahead of the competitors.


The adoption of holacracy may just have been the step in the right direction for Zappos as a company to tear away from the rigidity and the rigors of the traditional models of organizational behavior. The digital revolution spurred a major change in the traditional hierarchy of organizations. Most of the staff at the present day workspaces eschew the constricting, top-down hierarchal structures and are for systems that are more empowering and flexible. Nevertheless, from its experience with holacracy Zappos should step back and re-evaluate the success and setbacks it has faced thus far. It is clear that the system has been problematic and has persistently created confusion, panic, and disgruntlement among the employees. The movement towards Teal management is the right move for Zappos. Holacracy is part of the Teal organizational structure. The Teal structure advocates the same principles of self-management, wholeness and evolutionary purpose but is less rigid regarding what guidelines should be followed so as to achieve this. Zappos CEO may have adopted the holacracy system without much thought of what impact it would eventually have on the company. He ought to have adopted a less severe type of Teal organization before easing into holacracy. Although even before the adoption of holacracy Zappos had a fairly relaxed corporate culture, the CEO might have overestimated the ability of the organization to adapt to the organizational structure. However, the adoption of Teal represents a step in the right direction as holacracy is haunted by the unwavering Constitution that governs it.

Zappos online shoe retailers are a pioneering organization with regards to the adoption of holacracy to pursue the Teal organizational structure. Although the company had a fairly relaxed workplace culture, the CEO failed to anticipate the challenges that would come with the introduction of the system. The organizational structure manifested the same setbacks it was designed to curb, that is bureaucracy and undesirable human emotion. Therefore to shift to a Teal organization, Zappos would have been better off adopting a less rigid Teal organizational structure.

Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2015). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Groth, A. (2016, December 21). Zappos is struggling with Holacracy because humans aren't designed to operate like software. Retrieved from Quartz:

Guzman, Z. (2016, September 13). Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh on getting rid of managers: What I wish I'd done differently. Retrieved from CNBC:

Reingold, J. (2016, March 4). How a radical shift left Zappos reeling. Retrieved from Fortune:

Robertson, B. J. (2015). Holacracy: The Revolutionary Management System that Abolishes Hierarchy. New York: Portfolio Penguin.

Velarde, F. (2016, May 16). Is Holocracy finally dead? Retrieved from Quartz:

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5 Steps for Writing a Case Study for Business (+Templates)

Get professional tips for writing a case study that drives business impact. Learn the best format and research method to use alongside examples & templates .

case study writing sample

John McTale

7 minute read

writing a case study for busine

Short answer

What is a case study.

Why you need a case study

“I climbed Mount Everest and I did it all by myself.” “Yeah mate, pics or it didn’t happen.” The same logic applies to case studies. In business, it’s “case studies or it didn’t happen.” A well-written case study legitimizes your product or services. It proves the impact your actions have on the bottom line and is the single most important element of building trust amongst prospective clients. But… How do you write a *perfect* case study? One that engages readers and makes them care about your offering and excited to work with you?

In business, a case study is a written description and analysis of how a company or a person approached a problem and what results they achieved. The most common type of a case study in a professional setting is a story detailing a partnership between a vendor and a client.

What is the purpose of a case study?

The purpose of a case study, usually, is to provide your prospective clients with specific examples of how your products or services can help solve business problems they might be facing.

Case studies legitimize your business activities allowing you to go beyond explaining what you do and focus on how well you do it. (And, in case you were wondering just HOW important case studies are, here’s an item of data to ponder: according to a DemandGen report , 78% of B2B buyers want to review case studies before making a purchase decision.)

There’s no magic behind it. Just a proven, simple formula I’m about to share with you. Spend the next 7 minutes reading this guide and you’ll learn how to write case studies better than any case study you’ve created in the past. Important caveat: this article explains how to write a case study for business purposes. If you’re interested in writing research case studies for academia, refer to this excellent guide by University of Southern California. If, in turn, you’re struggling with putting together a medical case study, here’s a fantastic 101 by the BMJ . I’m not going to pretend I know better than these guys do.

For your reference, here’s an example of our very own case study, showing how, at Storydoc, we helped the Spot company boost some of their key metrics: Learn How Spot by NetApp boosted their conversion rates 2x Full disclosure: the case study features promotional elements (and that’s precisely the point, more on that later). Want to see the deck that helped them achieve such an amazing result? Check it out here:

Spot's team used this deck to boost their conversion 2x

By drawing the bigger picture even deep-tech software products can be easily explained.

Spot by Ocean sales deck

Browse interactive case study templates

No matter how great the contents of your case study might be, if you fail to present it in an eye-pleasing way, most likely, no one will really read it. The good news? I’ve put together a gallery of the most professional, attention-grabbing case study templates available online. You can find it here: Case Study Templates & Design Tips Or, take a shortcut to great case study design and use our presentation maker . Have a look below to see what your case study might look like.


And now, let’s get to the case study 101. (If you’re only interested in a specific section of a case study, simply click on a jump-to link in the table of contents below.)

Here's how to write a case study:

1. open with an introductory overview.

The last thing you want is for someone to open your case study, give it a quick glance, and decide to skip. See— People don’t usually read case studies. At least not immediately. First, they skim the contents to see if the subject is relevant enough. How to make sure your case study sticks? At the beginning, place an introductory overview (also called an “executive summary”). Provide an overview of the whole case. It’s not supposed to be a catchy intro but a full synopsis, detailing the problem at hand, your assumptions, the solutions implemented, and the results achieved.

How to write a case study introduction?

Introduce the purpose of the case study—specify exactly what you were aiming to achieve.

Define the problem or the most significant challenge. For instance, low conversion rates, a technological issue or high costs. (It could also be a combination of such factors!)

Explain briefly what the solution to the problem was.

Share the most important results your actions produced. Don’t go into too much detail, a few key points will do. It’s best if you can quantify the results: numbers pop!

Keep it short. Usually, 2–4 paragraphs + a few bullet points with key results will do.

While, as its name implies, this section comes at the beginning of your case study, write it last. First, craft the rest of your document, then pick the most important bits and compile them into the introductory overview.

2. Explain the problem in question

“Adam caught a flat tire. In the middle of the desert. He had no spare, no signal, no food, and only enough water to keep him alive for 48 hours.” Oh dear, poor Adam! What could possibly be done to help him?! See, in your case study, make the client seem like Adam so that, later on, you can paint your company like the miraculous savior. Of course, I’m exaggerating, but only so much. The purpose of the “problem” section in a case study is to arouse emotions from the readers. Ideally, in such a way that they can picture themselves as Adam. Highlight a problem your product or services solve and present an example of when that problem was troubling a client really badly.

How to write a “problem” section in a case study?

In a single sentence, describe your customer’s business challenges and objectives.

Explain the problem your customer faced that prevented them from achieving those objectives prior to working with you.

If that was the case, mention other solutions your client experimented with that didn’t work out and explain why.

Make it clear how the issue or problem impacted the client’s business results so that it’s easy to understand why a solution was badly needed.

3. Detail the solutions implemented to solve the problem

Here comes the moment to toot your own horn a bit (and also that moment when you can get slightly technical). Present your solutions in reference to the issue your client was dealing with and make it obvious that those are easily replicable for all future cases. Of course, the exact formula for this section will depend on your industry and mode of operation. Sometimes a 2–3 paragraph summary will be enough, in other cases, you’ll need to include more detailed technical specs regarding the solution you implemented.

How to write a solutions section in a case study?

Focus on your customer’s experience in using your product or services.

Explain the process: say how long it took to get the solution up and running and what teams on your customer’s end were involved.

Highlight the features of your product or service that turned out to be the most beneficial to your customer.

If possible, attach or link to relevant assets that will work as real-life examples of your solution (unless, of course, the information is highly sensitive).

Always run your case study by your client’s marketing team before you go live. Even if you’re using direct quotes or verifiable results, it’s ultimately their decision whether or not to make certain information freely available.

4. Refer to key results

In business, nothing speaks louder than ROI and you know it. Prospective customers reading your case study won’t be bothered to take notice of your state-of-the-art technology or innovative approach. Neither will they care about your past customers’ happiness. What they want to know is this: Will that help me save or make money? When writing a case study, your job is to present results in a way that answers the above question with a resounding YES. You need to make it blatantly obvious that your solutions heavily impact the bottom line of the client in question and that such results are easily replicable.

Here’s how to write about results:

In a few bullet points, list numerical results your solution delivered to the client.

Ideally, you’ll want to include revenue-related data: increase in clients’ base, more demos booked, higher conversion rates, or optimized pricing.

If you can’t (or aren’t allowed to) share hard sales numbers, refer to softer KPIs: time saved, customer happiness scores, expanding the community, or enhancing brand visibility.

If possible, by all means include quotes from your client. Results should speak for themselves, obviously, but showing the real human whose problems you solved makes for a much more powerful narrative. Plus, it further adds credibility to the case study. Start by preparing a list of powerful case study questions to guide your client interviews.

5. Finish with recommendations and next steps

Everyone enjoys a solid epilogue. To end on a high note, include a list of key findings from your case study. Even if a given reader won’t decide to get in touch with you, at least you’ll provide them with a valuable source of knowledge—sometimes that’s enough to keep your company top of mind in the future. Plus, if you’re planning to continue working with the subject of your case study, definitely mention that! It shows that your support is valuable enough to warrant long-term collaboration, not just a one-off endeavor. Now, not every case study requires a call to action (especially if your main purpose is to inform and educate rather than convert, which is okay, too), but for those more commercially-oriented ones, do add it. Make your CTA singular and clear —if the most desired action is to reach out to you, leave your contact details, if you’d rather direct prospects to a landing page or a welcome screen, add a button.

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And that’s a wrap!

Here are the key points to keep in mind when writing a case study:

Put an introductory overview at the beginning.

Present the problem you were solving and your exact solutions to that problem.

Include numerical, verifiable results your product or services delivered for the client.

Explain what the next steps are, especially if you plan to continue working with the client.

Finish with a strong, clear CTA, making it easy for prospects to reach out to you.

Thanks for reading the guide. Keeping my fingers crossed for your case study and wishing many successful cases so that you’ll always have something to write about.

case study writing sample

Hi, I'm John, Editor-in-chief at Storydoc. As a content marketer and digital writer specializing in B2B SaaS, my main goal is to provide you with up-to-date tips for effective business storytelling and equip you with all the right tools to enable your sales efforts.

What Are Business Case Studies: Meaning, Examples & Benefits

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6 Case Study Presentation Examples from Fortune 500 Companies

6 Steps to Create a Business Case Study That Converts

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Sample Case Study

The case of the floundering expatriate.

The case study is focused on the analysis of the situation in Argos Diesel, Europe. This company faced a problem of the internal conflict resulting from the ineffective work of the assistant of the CEO, Bert Donaldson, who cannot adapt to work in Europe. As a result, his efforts targeting the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams and improvement of the company performance fail. As a result, the CEO, Frank Waterhouse, has to solve this problem. In terms of this paper the situation is researched and the problems are identified in the failure of the company’s strategy of employee recruitment and selection, which actually led to the transfer of Donaldson to Argos Diesel, Europe, which proved to be unable to work effectively causing conflicts within the organization. As a result, the plan of actions was developed which could solve the problems identified through the firing of Donaldson and improvement of company recruitment strategy and possible new appointment within the company.


Often the problem of the organization of an effective work and creation of a cooperative team united by common objectives and ideas is quite a difficult task, especially if such an organization is supposed to be created in the region with a different socio-cultural background and in the situation of the shortage of well-qualified specialists that are ready to work in such environment. In fact, many multinational corporations face a problem of the organization of effective work in different parts of the world. This is actually the case of Argos International and its unit operating in Europe. Obviously, problems caused by the lack of experienced and qualified specialists and the necessity to organize work of a company in a multicultural environment are very serious and need immediate solution since they may threaten to the normal development of the company at large. Consequently, a company, like Argos Diesel should have a clear and effective strategy to overcome a variety of problems it may face in the process of its market expansion and this strategy should be implemented on the basis of a well-structured and realizable plan of action. At any rate, what is not acceptable is wasting time and delaying bold actions which could ameliorate the situation, while any delays would lead to its deterioration.

Background information on current problems in Argos Europe and symptoms

Speaking about the current situation in Argos Europe, it is necessary to point out that the company is facing serious problems in its functioning and Waterhouse, the CEO of Argos Diesel, Europe, should find the most plausible and effective solution of all the problems. In this respect, it is necessary to dwell upon the brief description of the situation in the company in order to better understand its problems and challenges.

First of all, it should be said that Argos Diesel is a multinational corporation based in Detroit, the US. The company actually operates in different countries of the world and its presence in Europe is considered to be strategically important. This European headquarter, situated in Zurich Switzerland, coordinates the functioning of the company in Europe. The CEO of Argos Diesel, Europe, is Frank Waterhouse who attempts to do his best to improve the effectiveness of the work of the personnel and, what is more, to improve the atmosphere within the organization and create a positive organizational culture. This is why Frank Waterhouse attempts to develop team work through the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams. The creation of such teams could lead to the considerable reduction of costs and improve the quality of the company’s operations and organization in Europe.

Actually, it is exactly to meet these basic goals the company employed Bert Donaldson, who was supposed to assist Frank Waterhouse to develop cross-divisional and cross-functional teams increasing the effectiveness of work of the company in Europe and creating an effective cooperation between all members of the teams working in Argos Europe. It is worthy of mention that the decision to engage Donaldson was not the independent decision of Waterhouse. In fact, Frank Waterhouse take such a decision after the consultations or, to put it more precisely, on receiving recommendations of Bill Loun, Argos International’s CEO and chairman, who estimated that Bert Donaldson could be very helpful because of his experience and his recent successes in Cairo.

On analyzing the potential of Donaldson and taking into consideration given recommendations, Frank Waterhouse agreed to employ Bert Donaldson. At first, the CEO was basically satisfied with the work of Bert Donaldson since he was ambitious and wanted to achieve best results. Moreover, the appointment of Donaldson secured important government contracts in Moscow, Warsaw and Ankara that naturally strengthened the position of the company in Europe.

However, the effectiveness of Bert Donaldson as a team builder, which was supposed to be very high and which actually was very high in the US and Cairo, proved to be not so high in Europe. In fact, at the present moment the situation has deteriorated so dramatically that Frank Waterhouse even thinks over the possibility of firing Bert Donaldson because of the failure of his efforts in the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams and the growing rejection of his approach and management style by the personnel. In this respect, it is necessary to underline that the personal of Argos Diesel, Europe is multinational and includes representative of absolutely different cultures. Strangely enough but Bert Donaldson, in spite of his experience and seemingly perspective methods he attempted to apply, has failed to unite them or, at least, gain the support of some part of managers. In contrast, conflicts are growing more and more serious. For instance, there is an open confrontation between Bert Donaldson and Frau Schweri, one of the most experienced employees, whom he calls a secretary and whose position he totally ignores, like it was in the case of appointment of trainers whose hiring Frau Schweri opposed. The dissatisfaction of managers with the work of Bert Donaldson grows so much that some of them like Maurizio, the director in Rome, attempts to convince Frank Waterhouse to fire Bert Donaldson.

In such a way, instead of the amelioration of the atmosphere within the company and improvement of the functioning of Argos Diesel, Europe through the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams, the company faces the problem of the growing tension between managers and Bert Donaldson and the opposition to him is very strong that makes Frank Waterhouse think about the possibility of firing Donaldson. However, he cannot take such a decision because he realizes that Bert Donaldson was really successful in the US and Cairo, he has a great experience, he attempts to use effective methods, which though do not work in Europe, and, finally, there are some ethical concerns. Namely, Frank Waterhouse cannot fire Bert Donaldson because it would mean the end of the career of this perspective and ambitious manager. On the other hand, Frank Waterhouse perfectly realizes that the situation cannot remain unchangeable because the current relationships and interactions of Bert Donaldson with the rest of the personnel is practically destructive.

However, it is worthy of mention that such a situation is really strange because it is stated that Bert Donaldson is or, at any rate, used to be quite successful and Bill Loun recommended him as a very reliable, experienced and perspective assistant in the process of team building. In fact, implicitly this means that Bert Donaldson, as a well-qualified specialist, is not the only cause of the current problems in Argos Diesel, Europe. In such a situation, it would be logical to presuppose that there is something wrong with the organization itself, i.e. with Argos Diesel, Europe, and, probably, its CEO, Frank Waterhouse. What is meant here is the fact that it is hardly possible to imagine the situation when a single person can be so destructive. In all probability, the organization and its CEO have also failed to use the potential of Bert Donaldson. Anyway, it is obvious that there exists an enormous gap between Bert Donaldson and other managers, while Frank Waterhouse, even on receiving numerous complaints from the part of his managers, cannot take any decision concerning his assistant, i.e. he does not fire him nor really attempts to improve the situation, though Donaldson have actually failed.

Major goals to improve the current situation

Taking into consideration the current situation in Argos Diesel, Europe, it is necessary to define clearly the major objectives of the company and possible objectives directed at the improvement of the current situation. In this respect, it should be said that initially, the company targeted at the development of the effective system of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams which could help to optimize the operations of the company in Europe, unite all its units throughout the continent and coordinate their work. Practically, this means that the entire organization was supposed to be structured and organized in such a way that it would be possible to provide the close cooperation between different divisions and increase multifunctional trends in their work. In other words, the entire organization was supposed to become a kind of a team where all employees, being divided into smaller groups or teams, could work for one and the same purpose defined by the strategic plan of the company.

At the same time, the company also targeted at the creation of a positive organizational culture and collaborative atmosphere that also implied the unification of all employees. Basically, it was virtually impossible to make people work effectively if they had absolutely different views on the basic approaches to work, to the realization of the strategic plan, and used different methods. Obviously, such a difference would be destructive. In this respect, it should be said that the failure of Bert Donaldson was, to a significant extent, determined by such a difference that existed between managers and his failure to unite them.

In fact, the unification of the personnel in one team or teams united by common goals was strategically important for the successful development of the company in Europe. The creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams could provide the company with the possibility of the growing interactions between different divisions. This would lead to the better understanding of the work of different units by all employees. As a result, they would be able to view Argos Diesel, Europe, not as a huge corporation which their unit constitutes the most important part, while other divisions, their successes or failure, experience and achievements were of little use for this particular unit where employees worked. Instead the company, through the creation of cross-divisional teams should be viewed as the solid organization where all parts are closely integrated and cooperate with each other.

At the same time, it should be said that the basic goals of the strategic development of the company in Europe faced serious obstacles in the way of their realization. In fact, since cross-divisional and cross-functional integration have actually failed, at the present moment it is necessary to define short-terms goals which could help overcome the current problems of the company and improve the situation in Argos Diesel, Europe. In this respect, it should be said that it is primarily necessary to define the future of Bert Donaldson in the company. Obviously, he proved to be ineffective and unable to assist to Fran Waterhouse to apply effectively the changes essential for the improvement of the functioning of the company. Furthermore, another goal is to find the alternative to Bert Donaldson because it is really important to develop cross-divisional and cross-cultural teams. Finally, it is necessary to find the causes of the failure of Bert Donaldson within the organization because apparently it was not only the fault of Donaldson but also the result of the problems within the organization, the adaptation of new employees and the lack of interaction or mutual understanding. Anyway, whatever the causes are they should be eliminated and this is why it is possible to name another goal – the development of an effective plan of actions to overcome the existing problems as well as the problems that may arise in the nearest future.

The analysis and diagnosis of the current situation

Basically, the current situation within Argos Diesel is determined by the erroneous policy of the company. In this respect, it is possible to recommend the application of the Rational Choice theory which could facilitate the process of recruiting and application of changes in the company. In order to find the adequate and effective solution of the existing problems of Argos Diesel, Europe, it is necessary to analyze the current situation in the company and identify the major problems. First of all, it should be said that, at the moment, Frank Waterhouse stands on the ground that it is Bert Donaldson who cause all the troubles. On the one hand, he is an ambitious professional who has successful experience of work but in other countries but Europe, while, on the other hand, all his successes and ambitions turn to be absolutely useless in Argos Diesel, Europe and, what is more, his work undermines the stability within the organization and causes numerous conflicts between Bert Donaldson and managers, such as Frau Schweri.

Consequently, it is possible to estimate that one of the major problems of the company is the inability of Bert Donaldson to conduct the changes and create effectively working cross-divisional and cross-functional teams. This problem is defined by several factors. Firstly, the personal ambitions and charisma of Bert Donaldson prevents him from the possibility to better understand people who he is actually working with. In other words, he perceives himself as a strong, experienced, and skillful leader that can lead the company to great successes and the only problem is that the company and its employees should be changed in such a way that they would meet the demands of Bert Donaldson. In such a way, he rather attempts to change his environment, people working with him but does not attempt to change himself at all.

However, the latter is extremely important because another important problem is the enormous cultural gap between Bert Donaldson and managers of the company. In this respect, it is possible to mention his numerous conflicts with the managers, his style of work, his behavior and actions that are not comprehensible or not adequately perceived by the personnel of Argos. For instance, he has a typical American style which he applied effectively in the past but which proves to be ineffective now, in Europe. The organization of work is absolutely unacceptable for the managers who have different socio-cultural background. For instance, mangers from Germanic countries can hardly admit his style because of the lack of formalism, clear structure and system since Bert Donaldson do not provide them with clear schemes that could help them systemize the information they receive. In contrast, managers from Italy, or Spain, for instance, need more vivid communication and they accept neither Germanic model nor American which Bert Donaldson actually imposes to all of the managers. In such a way, Bert Donaldson should adapt his style to the needs and culture of managers with different cultural background, i.e. he should find some plausible alternative style of work which could be acceptable for all. For instance, while implementing changes he should resent his plans in the form of clear schemes but, at the same time, he should make the presentation more vivid, though he should not use such remarks as he made about Eisenhower’s idea concerning urgent and important problems because European managers have a different mentality and different culture. Consequently, such remarks could be effective in the US to create more comfortable atmosphere but in Europe they are rather puzzling.

Thus, it is obvious that the decision to employ Bert Donaldson was a mistake that would not occur if the management of the company based its human resource policies on the Rational Choice theory because it would lead to the more careful selection of the personnel on the basis of the personnel qualities or recommendations of Bill Loun but on the basis of the logical choice made in the result of deep reflections on the perspectives of Donaldson in Argos Diesel, Europe. To put it more precisely, Frank Waterhouse should rationally evaluate the perspectives of a candidate that has never worked in European environment and has not got any idea about socio-cultural environment in which he was supposed to work. Naturally, chances that he would be an effective employee were minimal, if all objective factors were taken into consideration and logical and rational analysis of Donaldson perspectives was conducted.

Obviously, it is not only the problem of the personal ambitions and the cultural gaps that lead to the ineffectiveness of Bert Donaldson’s work. One of the major problems is the problem of the inability of Argos Diesel and its CEO, Frank Waterhouse to integrate Bert Donaldson, whose is apparently a well-qualified professional and this fact is recognized by Bill Loun as well as by Frank Waterhouse, into the company. This means that he should come prepared to work in the company and Frank Waterhouse should help him overcome cultural barriers. This means that the company should have a clear strategy of integration of new members but there is no strategy at all.

Moreover, from the point of view of the Rational Choice Theory, it would be more logical to find an assistant for Frank Waterhouse among the managers that have a huge experience of work in Europe or who are actually Europeans. For instance, Frau Schweri would be a good assistant who new socio-cultural environment perfectly well and had significant experience of work within Argos Diesel, Europe.

The action planning

On analyzing the case of Argos Diesel, it should be said that the major problem of the company is the poor employee recruitment and selection and this is why it is necessary to improve the process of recruitment and select the personnel more carefully in order to prevent the possibility when an unprepared employee like Donaldson joins the company.

Obviously, in face of the numerous problems Frank Waterhouse as a CEO should undertake bold steps to solve the problems defined above. This is why it is possible to recommend the application of the plan of actions that could decrease the tension and contribute to the further progress of the company through more careful personnel selection and recruitment.

First of all, Frank Waterhouse needs to take decision concerning Bert Donaldson. In fact, in the current situation, it is necessary to fire Bert Donaldson because his work is ineffective while the growing opposition of the personnel threatens to the normal functioning of the entire organization. Naturally, it is possible to argue that Bert Donaldson did not have enough time to realize all his ideas and plans since he has been working for only two years, but actually there is no time to waste. The actions should be taken fast. However, it is very important to explain to Bert Donaldson the reasons for such a decision because such specialists are really valuable and he could be useful for Argos International in some other region of the world, but not in Europe.

Furthermore, on firing Bert Donaldson, it is necessary to find the adequate substation. In this respect, Frank Waterhouse could be quite a good candidate since he has a huge experience of work within the company in Europe, but, naturally, he cannot narrow his functions to the implementation of the changes Donaldson has failed to do. This is why in a long-run he still will need an assistant. It is possible to recommend Frau Schweri who also has a great experience of work and knows perfectly European socio-cultural environment. Also, Frank Waterhouse should improve contacts with the personnel. For instance, he could visit all the countries where the company operates and communicate with its managers to learn more about their style of work and needs they have in order to understand their problems.

In such a way, it will be possible to develop an effective strategic program of the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional teams which could function in multicultural environment. At the same time, it is also very important to organize training, especially for people that just join the company, to get them prepared to work in European cultural environment.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the current situation in Argos Diesel, Europe is very difficult and threatens to the normal development of the company because of the failure of Bert Donaldson to implement effectively the changes he planned and the opposition of the personnel of the company. Basically, the ineffective work of Donaldson and his conflicts with other managers actually revealed a serious problem in the company recruitment and selection policy, which proved to imperfect since it did not provide the recruitment of highly qualified professionals and their training for work in particular environment. On the other hand, it is necessary to admit the fact that personal ambitions of Donaldson and his unwillingness to give in and adapt to the new environment also contributed significantly to the deterioration of the situation in the company. Consequently, the CEO should be more careful in the selection of the assistant in such for work in such a sensitive and complicated environment. Eventually, this led to a serious organizational problem when the internal conflict threatens to the effective functioning of the company. In such a situation, it is necessary to solve all these problems starting from the firing of Bert Donaldson and changing the organizational culture to make it more universal and inclusive for new members of the team. Otherwise, the situation in the company will grow worse.

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    The case study is focused on the analysis of the situation in Argos Diesel, Europe. This company faced a problem of the internal conflict resulting from the ineffective work of the assistant of the CEO, Bert Donaldson, who cannot adapt to work in Europe. As a result, his efforts targeting the creation of cross-divisional and cross-functional ...