Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Amherst, MA

Photo of Jordan Castonguay, Mental Health Counselor in Amherst, MA

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Edward Tick, Counselor in Amherst, MA

Online Therapists

Photo of Mayte Forte, Psychologist in Amherst, MA

How can I find a therapist in Amherst?

Is online therapy a good option, what’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor, what type of therapist is right for me, is everyone in the psychology today therapy directory a licensed therapist, what type of therapy is right for me, is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy.

Search Icon

Psychological Therapies

Embed Size (px)


Transcript of Psychological Therapies

Page 1: Psychological Therapies

psychologypsychologyfourth editionfourth edition

Copyright ©2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.

Psychology, Fourth EditionSaundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White

Chapter 15psychological therapies

Page 2: Psychological Therapies

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.All rights reserved.

Psychology, Third EditionSaundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White

Learning Objective Menu

15.1 How have psychological disorders been treated throughout history, and are two modern ways they are treated today?

15.2 What were the basic elements of Freud’s psychoanalysis, and how do psychodynamic approaches differ today?

15.3 What are the basic elements of the humanistic therapies known as person-centered therapy and Gestalt therapy?

15.4 How do behavior therapists use classical and operant conditioning to treat disordered behavior, and how successful are these therapies?

15.5 What are the goals and basic elements of cognitive therapies such as cognitive–behavioral therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy?

15.6 What are the various types of group therapies and the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy?

15.7 How effective is psychotherapy, and what factors influence its effectiveness?

15.8 What are the various types of drugs used to treat psychological disorders?

15.9 How are electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery used to treat psychological disorders today?

15.10 How might computers be used in psychotherapy?

Page 3: Psychological Therapies

Treatment in the Past

• Mentally ill people began to be confined to institutions called asylums in the mid-1500s

• Treatments were harsh and often damaging

• Philippe Pinel became famous for demanding that the mentally ill be treated with kindness, personally unlocking the chains of inmates in France

LO 15.1 Two Modern Ways to Treat Psychological Disorders

Page 4: Psychological Therapies

• Therapy: treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively

• Two broad categories:– one based primarily in psychological theory

and techniques– the other uses medical intervention to bring

symptoms under control

Page 5: Psychological Therapies

• Psychotherapy: therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional– insight therapies: psychotherapies in which

the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings

– action therapy: psychotherapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly

Page 6: Psychological Therapies

• Biomedical therapy: therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms

Page 7: Psychological Therapies

Freud’s Psychoanalysis

• Psychoanalysis: insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts– dream interpretation

manifest content: the actual content of one’s dream latent content: the symbolic or hidden meaning of

LO 15.2 Elements of Freud’s Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalysis Today

Page 8: Psychological Therapies

• Psychoanalysis (cont’d)– free association: Freudian technique in which a

patient is encouraged to talk about anything that comes to mind without fear of negative evaluations

– resistance: occurs when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent

– transference: the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist

Page 9: Psychological Therapies

Psychoanalysis Today

• Directive: actively giving interpretations of a client’s statements in therapy, even suggesting certain behavior or actions– psychoanalysis today is generally directive

• Psychodynamic therapy: a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach

Page 10: Psychological Therapies

• Interpersonal therapy (IPT): form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems

Page 11: Psychological Therapies

Rogers’s Person-Centered Therapy

• Person-centered therapy: a nondirective insight therapy in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens– based on the work of Carl Rogers – nondirective: therapeutic style in which the

therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks

LO 15.3 Basic Elements of Humanistic Therapies

Page 12: Psychological Therapies

• Four elements:1. authenticity: the genuine, open, and honest

response of the therapist to the client

2. unconditional positive regard: the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy

3. empathy: the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client

4. reflection: the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements

Page 13: Psychological Therapies

• Motivational interviewing (MI)– In contrast to client-centered therapy, MI has

specific goals: namely, to reduce ambivalence about change and to increase intrinsic motivation to bring that change about

Page 14: Psychological Therapies

Gestalt Therapy

• Gestalt therapy: form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing

Page 15: Psychological Therapies

Today’s View of Humanistic Therapy

• Humanistic therapies are not based in experimental research and work best with intelligent, highly verbal persons

Page 16: Psychological Therapies

Behavioral Therapy and Classical Conditioning

• Behavior therapies: action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior

LO 15.4 Behavior Therapists’ Use of Classical and Operant Conditioning

Page 17: Psychological Therapies

• Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis: use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior

Page 18: Psychological Therapies

• Systematic desensitization: behavioral technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears– counterconditioning: replacing an old

conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus

Page 19: Psychological Therapies

• Aversion therapy: form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior

Page 21: Psychological Therapies

• Exposure therapy: behavioral techniques that introduce the client to situations (under carefully controlled conditions) that are related to their anxieties or fears– flooding: technique for treating phobias and

other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response

Page 22: Psychological Therapies

• Exposure therapy (cont’d)– eye-movement desensitization reprocessing

(EMDR): controversial therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder and similar anxiety problems in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory needs more controlled studies

Page 23: Psychological Therapies

Behavioral Therapy and Operant Conditioning

• Modeling: learning through the observation and imitation of others– participant modeling: technique in which a

model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model

Page 24: Psychological Therapies

• Reinforcement: the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus– token economy: the use of objects called

tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges

Page 25: Psychological Therapies

• Reinforcement (cont’d)– contingency contract: a formal, written

agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated

Page 26: Psychological Therapies

• Extinction: the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior– time-out: an extinction process in which a

person (usually a child) is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities

Page 27: Psychological Therapies

Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy

• Behavior therapies can be effective in treating specific problems, such as bedwetting, drug addictions, and phobias

• Behavior therapies can also help improve some of the more troubling behavioral symptoms associated with more severe disorders

Page 28: Psychological Therapies

Cognitive Therapy

• Cognitive therapy: therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts

LO 15.55 Goals of Cognitive Therapies

Page 29: Psychological Therapies

• Cognitive distortions:– arbitrary inference: drawing a conclusion

without any evidence– selective thinking: focusing on only one

aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects

– overgeneralization: drawing sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applying those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original

LO 15.5 Goals of Cognitive Therapies

Page 30: Psychological Therapies

• Cognitive distortions (cont’d):– magnification and minimization: blowing a

negative event out of proportion (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization)

– personalization: taking responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person

Page 31: Psychological Therapies

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies

• Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically

Page 32: Psychological Therapies

• Three goals: 1. Relieve the symptoms and solve the

2. Help develop strategies for solving future problems.

3. Help change irrational, distorted thinking.

Page 33: Psychological Therapies

Rational Emotive Therapy

• Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT): cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements

Page 34: Psychological Therapies

Success of CBT

• CBT has seemed successful in treating depression, stress disorders, and anxiety.

• CBT has been criticized for focusing on the symptoms, not the causes, of disordered behavior.

Page 35: Psychological Therapies

Types of Group Therapy

• Family counseling (family therapy): family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family

LO 15.6 Types of Group Therapy

Page 37: Psychological Therapies

• Self-help group (support group): a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support

Page 38: Psychological Therapies

When Is Group Therapy Useful?

• Group therapy is most useful to persons who:– cannot afford individual therapy– may obtain a great deal of social and

emotional support from other group members

Page 39: Psychological Therapies

Group Therapy

• Advantages:– low cost– exposure to other people with similar

problems; social interaction with others– social and emotional support from people with

similar disorders or problems

Page 40: Psychological Therapies

• Disadvantages:– need to share the therapist’s time with others

in the group– lack of a private setting in which to reveal

concerns– inability of people with severe disorders to

tolerate being in a group

Page 41: Psychological Therapies

Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

• Psychotherapy is more effective than no treatment at all

• Between 75 and 90 percent of people who receive therapy feel it has helped them– the longer a person stays in therapy, the

greater the improvement– psychotherapy works as well alone as with

LO 15.7 The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

Page 42: Psychological Therapies

• Some types of psychotherapy are more effective for certain types of problems, and no one psychotherapy method is effective for all problems– effective therapy should be matched to the

particular client and the particular problem

Page 43: Psychological Therapies

• Eclectic therapies: therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques

• Common factors approach: modern approach to eclecticism focusing on factors seen as the source of success

Page 44: Psychological Therapies

• Common factors approach– therapeutic alliance: the relationship between

therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding

– protected setting– opportunity for catharsis– learning and practice of new behaviors– positive experiences for the client

Page 45: Psychological Therapies

• Evidence-based treatment (EBT) refers to techniques or interventions that have produced desired outcomes, or therapeutic change in controlled studies

Page 46: Psychological Therapies

Culture and Psychotherapy

• When the cultures, ethnic groups, or genders of the therapist and the client differs, misunderstandings and misinterpretations can occur.

• Four barriers to effective psychotherapy exist when culture the backgrounds of client and therapist differ1. culture-bound values

2. class-bound values

3. language

4. nonverbal communication

Page 47: Psychological Therapies


• Cybertherapy: psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet– also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or

counseling– offers the advantages of anonymity and

therapy for people who cannot otherwise get to a therapist

Page 48: Psychological Therapies

Drug Treatments

• Biomedical therapies: therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain

LO 15.8 Types of Drugs Used to Treat Psychological Disorders

Page 49: Psychological Therapies

• Psychopharmacology: the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders– antipsychotic drugs: used to treat psychotic

symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior

– antianxiety drugs: used to treat and calm anxiety reactions typically minor tranquilizers

Page 50: Psychological Therapies

• Psychopharmacology (cont’d)– mood-stabilizing drugs: used to treat bipolar

disorder include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs

– antidepressant drugs: used to treat depression and anxiety

Page 51: Psychological Therapies

Electroconvulsive Therapy

• Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): biomedical treatment in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head and an electric current strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion is passed through the electrodes– still used to treat severe depression

LO 15.9 Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery

Page 53: Psychological Therapies


• Psychosurgery: surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders– prefrontal lobotomy: the connections of the

prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed

Page 54: Psychological Therapies

• Psychosurgery (cont’d)– Bilateral anterior cingulotomy: an electrode

wire is inserted into the anterior cingulated gyrus area of the brain for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current electrode is inserted with the guidance of a

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine

Page 55: Psychological Therapies

• Emerging techniques– repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

(rTMS): magnetic pulses are applied to the cortex

– transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): uses scalp electrodes to pass very low amplitude direct currents to the brain

Page 56: Psychological Therapies

Virtual Reality

• Virtual reality is a software-generated three-dimensional simulated environment with can be used in the treatment of PTSD– like playing a video game

LO 15.10 How Might Computers Be Used in Psychotherapy?

Therapy Chapter 13. Therapy Treating Psychological Disorders The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies.

Therapy Chapter 13. Therapy Treating Psychological Disorders The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies.

Therapies for Psychological Disorders Chapter 15.

Therapies for Psychological Disorders Chapter 15.

1 Therapy Chapter 13. 2 Therapy Treating Psychological Disorders  The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies.

1 Therapy Chapter 13. 2 Therapy Treating Psychological Disorders The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies.

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) · PDF fileImproving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), ... Improving Access to Psychological Therapies ... IAPT Dataset,

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) · PDF fileImproving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT), ... Improving Access to Psychological Therapies ... IAPT Dataset,

Psychological explanations of schizophrenia and therapies

Psychological explanations of schizophrenia and therapies

Planning for the psychological therapies workforce

Planning for the psychological therapies workforce

Unit 13 Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Unit Overview The Psychological Therapies Humanistic Therapies Behavioral Therapies Cognitive Therapies.

Unit 13 Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Unit Overview The Psychological Therapies Humanistic Therapies Behavioral Therapies Cognitive Therapies.

Bereavement Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)

Bereavement Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)

1 Therapy Chapter 17. 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive Therapies  Group.

1 Therapy Chapter 17. 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies Cognitive Therapies Group.

Psychological Therapies

1 The Psychological Therapies Module 52. 2 Therapy The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies Cognitive.

Psychological therapies and schizophrenia

Psychological therapies and schizophrenia

Chapter 17 Therapy. The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Human Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive Therapies  Group and Family Therapies.

Chapter 17 Therapy. The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Human Therapies Behavior Therapies Cognitive Therapies Group and Family Therapies.

The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT ...€¦ · Psychological Therapies (IAPT) Program in United Kingdom ... • The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies

The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT ...€¦ · Psychological Therapies (IAPT) Program in United Kingdom ... • The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies

Experience schizophrenia clip. THERAPIES Biological & Psychological Therapies for schizophrenia.

Experience schizophrenia clip. THERAPIES Biological & Psychological Therapies for schizophrenia.

Research Briefing Psychological Therapies in Wales Documents/16-050-Psychological... · Research Briefing Psychological Therapies in Wales. 1 ... In 2010 the Welsh Government passed

Research Briefing Psychological Therapies in Wales Documents/16-050-Psychological... · Research Briefing Psychological Therapies in Wales. 1 ... In 2010 the Welsh Government passed

Low Intensity Psychological Therapies - ncl

Low Intensity Psychological Therapies - ncl

Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, … et al 2012 Psychological therapies versus antidepressant... · Psychological therapies versus

Psychological therapies versus antidepressant medication, … et al 2012 Psychological therapies versus antidepressant... · Psychological therapies versus

1. The Psychological Therapies  Psychoanalysis  Humanistic Therapies  Behavior Therapies  Cognitive Therapies  Group and Family Therapies 2.

1. The Psychological Therapies Psychoanalysis Humanistic Therapies Behavior Therapies Cognitive Therapies Group and Family Therapies 2.

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies

Copyright © 2022 FDOCUMENTS

This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

Published on 13.7.2022 in Vol 6 , No 7 (2022) :July

Online Guided Self-help Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Exposure to Anxiety and Problem Solving in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Case Study

Authors of this article:

Author Orcid Image

Original Paper

1 Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Healthcare Services, Stockholm, Sweden

2 Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

3 Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Corresponding Author:

Dorian Kern, MSc

Centre for Psychiatry Research

Department of Clinical Neuroscience

Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Healthcare Services

Norra Stationsgatan 69

Stockholm, 11364

Phone: 46 723243235

Email: [email protected]

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is dependent on self-care to avoid short- and long-term complications. There are several problem areas in diabetes that could be addressed by psychological interventions, such as suboptimal problem-solving strategies and fear of hypoglycemia. There is empirical support for a few psychological interventions, most often cognitive behavioral therapy, with various treatment aims. However, these interventions are largely unavailable in regular diabetes health care. Online guided self-help cognitive behavioral therapy could help achieve greater outreach.

Objective: We tested a manualized treatment in the early stage for further development, with the long-term aim to increase access to care. The purpose of this report was to show the potential of this newly developed online intervention by describing 2 illustrative cases.

Methods: An online guided self-help cognitive behavioral therapy protocol featuring problem solving and exposure was developed. The treatment was administered from a secure online platform and lasted for 8 weeks. Case 1 was a male participant. He had a number of diabetes-related complications and was worried about his future. He reported that he had a general idea that he needed to change his lifestyle but found it difficult to get started. Case 2 was a female participant. She had fear of hypoglycemia and unhelpful avoidance behaviors. She kept her blood glucose levels unhealthily high in order to prevent hypoglycemic episodes. Furthermore, she avoided contact with diabetes health care.

Results: The 2 participants showed clinically significant improvements in their most relevant problem areas. In case 1, the participant’s blood glucose levels reduced, and he was able to establish healthy routines, such as increase physical exercise and decrease overeating. In case 2, the participant’s fear of hypoglycemia greatly decreased, and she was able to confront many of her avoided situations and increase necessary visits to her diabetes clinic. Treatment satisfaction was high, and no adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: It is possible to deliver a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention aimed at problem areas in diabetes online. Problem solving appears to help with problems in everyday routines and lifestyle choices. Exposure to aversive stimuli appears to be a plausible intervention specifically aimed at the fear of hypoglycemia. Larger and controlled studies are needed.


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic condition caused by deterioration in the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, leading to insufficient insulin levels [ 1 ]. Lifestyle factors have not been found to increase the risk of T1DM, although, for example, diet and exercise are important to keep blood glucose stable when the disease is present [ 2 ]. Thus, patient self-care behaviors are necessary to maintain a stable and healthy blood glucose level [ 2 ]. People with T1DM are required to monitor their blood glucose levels multiple times per day and to plan and adjust insulin doses based on several factors. These factors include daily activities, food intake, exercise, ongoing infection, stress, and others, requiring well-functioning planning and problem-solving skills [ 3 ]. Fear of hypoglycemia is a fear specific to insulin-treated diabetes, which can lead to several unhelpful avoidance behaviors [ 4 ]. These behaviors generally include keeping blood glucose levels unhealthily high to try to avoid hypoglycemia, as well as avoiding places or situations viewed as potentially dangerous [ 5 ].

Psychological interventions aimed at people with T1DM have usually involved different types of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), often aimed at emotional coping and behavioral change [ 4 ]. One intervention that has been used for people with T1DM is problem solving, which is a technique that teaches a structured approach to solving practical and emotional problems [ 6 ]. Another CBT intervention that has been suggested is exposure, an often used and effective treatment component for anxiety disorders. This technique is used to confront feared stimuli, in order to decrease fear and to decrease avoidance of fearful situations [ 7 ]. For T1DM, exposure has mainly been proposed as an intervention for fear of hypoglycemia [ 4 ]. Exposure has previously been successfully tried for fear of hypoglycemia in a case study of face-to-face CBT [ 8 ]. Further evaluation of exposure has been proposed [ 4 ]. Exposure has been used successfully in guided self-help treatments for somatic conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [ 9 ], atrial fibrillation [ 10 ], and asthma [ 11 ].

Exposure may theoretically be a sound approach for people with T1DM who display avoidance behaviors and fear of symptoms, and this approach has been successful for similar chronic conditions. Regardless of the helpfulness of CBT in people with T1DM, access to psychologists with relevant knowledge of the diabetes population is severely limited [ 12 ]. Over several years, great progress has been made with CBT over the internet. Internet-delivered CBT (internet CBT) has some advantages over traditional CBT. Internet CBT requires less time per therapist and patient, and therefore allows more people to be treated. The format also means that the treatment can be available for people living in rural areas. The effects of internet CBT have been evaluated for a large number of conditions, generally with equal effects as traditional CBT [ 13 ]. One recent meta-analysis found 25 randomized controlled trials of CBT for diabetes, although only 5 of these were aimed at type 1 diabetes. The analysis suggested that CBT is an effective intervention to improve blood glucose and quality of life. However, none of the approaches had been completely delivered via the internet, and none had exposure as the main intervention [ 14 ]. There is some evidence suggesting the effectiveness of CBT for improving blood glucose and mental health in people with T1DM [ 14 ]. Therefore, we believe it is valuable to examine if online CBT for T1DM, including exposure, can be feasible, using a case study as the first step.

The objective was to develop a manualized CBT treatment delivered online. In this study, we tested a treatment in the very early stage. The participants’ course of treatment was explored to get an early indication of what might and might not be practical in this type of treatment. To illustrate this, we describe 2 cases involving 2 participants with T1DM, who completed online guided self-help CBT. The illustrative cases will be used to revise and further adapt the treatment protocol adopted.


The details of the below 2 cases have been altered to protect the anonymity of the participants while keeping the functional similarity of the participants’ behavioral analysis and the characteristics of the treatment. The participants were recruited via advertisements on social media. They had to have a self-reported T1DM diagnosis, be unsatisfied with their blood glucose, or report other psychological or behavioral problems connected to their diabetes. In telephone interviews, the participants were asked about their diabetes history. The participants were asked about problematic areas with diabetes self-care and life in general. In particular, the participants were asked about specific emotional and behavioral reactions to problematic situations. The interviews were not recorded. See Table 1 for the timeline of the intervention.

Mr A was a man in his 40s with a university education. He had self-reported lifestyle problems and an increasing worry about complications. Mr A had found it difficult to engage in physical activity, which he knew was important to his health. He reported that he was very preoccupied with work and that it was challenging to fit physical activity into his schedule. He also found that he ate too much, reporting feelings of hunger even after he had eaten portions of adequate size according to the recommendations of his dietician. Mr A was already experiencing a number of diabetes-related complications (some mild and transient, and others moderately serious and permanent). He reported that he was often preoccupied with worry that the complications would deteriorate and that he would develop additional complications. He reported that it was problematic and a burden to plan the day with consideration of the disease, as well as find time and practical opportunity for self-care activities within daily life. Perfectionistic tendencies were another area that could cause problems, leading to unhelpful thoughts that if Mr A was not able to manage his diabetes perfectly, he might as well give in completely. This could lead to hopelessness and engaging in problematic behaviors, such as eating unhealthy food, reasoning that it did not matter anyway. Worry distracted him from engaging in more enjoyable activities, and could lead to a feeling of helplessness, as well as frustration and anger with the disease, or feeling overwhelmed.

Mr A reported that he had a general idea that he needed to change his behaviors and habits to improve his well-being. However, he had difficulties knowing precisely where to begin, and felt that he needed a structured way forward to fit self-care behaviors into his busy life. Previous approaches to behavioral change had also been hindered by unhelpful thoughts, worry, and perfectionism. We believed that problem solving and exposure would be helpful interventions for Mr A, as this would help him to structure what he already had in mind and help him go against unhelpful emotions to engage in behaviors he felt he needed.

Ms B was a woman in her 30s with a university education. She reported high blood glucose levels and fear of hypoglycemia throughout several years. Her fears included worrying about losing consciousness or feeling humiliated in public, losing control, not having anyone there to help her, making serious mistakes, and becoming aggressive toward other people. A particular fear was to experience hypoglycemia during the night, which Ms B felt was a very frightening experience, sharing many characteristics of a panic attack. Furthermore, she reported that she had neglected her medical self-care to some degree when newly diagnosed in her early teens, acting as the disease would simply go away, although she knew that was not a realistic judgement. Stress was a reported problem area, which was accompanied by higher blood glucose. Ms B reported that her blood glucose level was less stable and that she did not find the time for proper self-care when under stress. This could lead to stressful thoughts about her diabetes, increasing stress in a vicious circle. A particularly unhelpful behavior was to eat to keep the blood glucose level high, in order to avoid hypoglycemic episodes during the night. This behavior would ease the fear and anxiety in the short term. In the long run, however, this led to hyperglycemia, with its unpleasant symptoms, such as thirst and fatigue. Likewise, Ms B preferred her blood glucose level to be on the higher side in other situations, such as when attending parties and driving. Another problematic area was that Ms B was afraid of diabetic health care itself. She avoided contacting her hospital diabetes unit as much as possible and reported aversive events where she had been educated in great detail about possible complications. Although the physician had all the best intentions, Ms B reacted with fear. Further mentions of complications made her anxious, and she wished to avoid the subject altogether. Ms B had been in contact with a psychologist about her diabetes before, but she was not satisfied with the intervention, reporting that they mainly talked in general, and that she was told to practice positive thinking, rather than behavioral interventions aimed at specific targets.

Ms B reported that her situation was beginning to be difficult to handle and felt overwhelmed by her fears. Our behavioral analysis showed that her fear had led to many avoidance and safety behaviors, with a negative impact on her blood glucose and general well-being. We hypothesized that it would be useful to have a particular focus on Ms B’s fear of hypoglycemia during the treatment. According to our hypothesis, if her fear of hypoglycemia was improved, it would lead to improvement overall.

Ethical Considerations

The exercises in the treatment were discussed with a consultant endocrinologist and were considered safe. All procedures in the study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the regional ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. It was approved on January 04, 2018, by the regional authority Etikprövningsnämnden Stockholm (2017/2278-31). An addendum was approved by the same regional authority on February 12, 2018 (2018/300-32). Another addendum was approved on April 30, 2021, by the Swedish national authority Etikprövningsmyndigheten (2021-02263). Participants provided written informed consent for participation and publication.


This study relied on self-reported measures. The measures were filled out as online questionnaires, before and after treatment, and every week in some cases.

Blood Glucose

Glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is a well-used biomarker for the blood glucose level over several months [ 2 ]. Participants reported their latest known HbA 1c value and were encouraged to get a new measurement toward the end of treatment. In what way and how often participants measured their blood glucose level as part of their regular self-care was not controlled for in this study.

Problem Areas in Diabetes

The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) Scale [ 15 ] is a scale used to assess areas of diabetes a patient may need guidance for from health care, and to screen for “emotional distress” in patient with diabetes. The PAID Scale consists of 20 items on a scale from 0 (“not a problem”) to 4 (“serious problem”). The total score ranges from 0 to 100, and scores over 40 indicate “emotional distress.” According to the authors of the scale, people with a score of 40 or higher require attention from their diabetes team, and the score is expected to drop 10-15 points following medical and educational interventions. The scale has been validated and shown to be acceptable in a diabetes population [ 15 ]. This scale was measured weekly.

Fear of Hypoglycemia

The Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) [ 16 ] was developed to measure to what degree a patient with diabetes is afraid of hypoglycemia. This scale explores avoidance behaviors and worry in relation to hypoglycemia. It has 23 items with a range from 0 (“never”) to 5 (“always”). The total score is 0-92, with a mean score of 25 in a clinical sample. This scale was measured weekly.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) [ 17 ] is commonly used to measure anxiety. It consists of 7 items using a scale from 0 (“not at all”) to 3 (“nearly every day”). The total score is 0-21 points. The authors suggest cutoff scores for mild (5), moderate (10), and severe (15) anxiety. The scale has been found to be valid and reliable [ 17 ].

The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) [ 18 ] consists of 9 items on a scale from 0 (“not at all”) to 3 (“nearly every day”), with a total score of 0-27. The authors suggest a cutoff at 5 (possible depression) and 15 (probable depression). The scale has been found to be valid and reliable [ 18 ].

Stress Reactivity

The perceived stress scale [ 19 ] consists of 14 items on a scale from 0 (“never”) to 4 (“very often”), with a total score of 0-40. The authors suggest intervals, with 0-13 indicating low stress, 14-26 indicating moderate stress, and 27-40 indicating high perceived stress. The scale has been shown to be valid and reliable [ 19 ].


Participants’ perception of the credibility of the treatment and their expectation of the final result were assessed with the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) [ 20 ], using a scale from 1 to 6, with a total score of 0-50. Higher scores suggest better credibility/expectancy. The scale has been found to be valid and reliable. The scale was administered 1 week into treatment.

Treatment Satisfaction

The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) [ 21 ] consists of 8 items on a scale from 1 to 4, with a total score of 8-32. The score can be recalculated with a total score from 25 to 100. A higher score suggests a higher satisfaction [ 21 ].

Adverse Events

Participants answered questions about whether they had experienced any adverse events, and if so, they were told to elaborate on these experiences. The questionnaire was unpublished.

Subjective Assessment

Participants were asked about subjective blood glucose improvement, using the Subjective Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ), with a 6-point scale ranging from “much declined” to “much improved.” This type of scale is often used for other somatic conditions and has been found to be useful and valid [ 22 ].

Therapeutic Intervention

The treatment was delivered entirely via the internet, through a secure treatment platform. Participants received homework each week, answering questions about the psychoeducation and doing exercises in their everyday life. Participants received psychoeducation based on material from a previously evaluated CBT group treatment for T1DM [ 23 ] and adapted material from an internet-delivered treatment for IBS [ 9 ]. The material from the IBS treatment was general information on worry about symptoms and exposure to avoided stimuli, which was easily adapted for T1DM by changing examples. The participants had access to 5 modules of psychoeducation, each approximately corresponding to 10 written A4 pages. The active treatment consisted of established CBT interventions. The main components used were problem solving and exposure. There were also some cognitive interventions, namely information about thinking traps and basic cognitive restructuring, and additional interventions such as assertiveness training and life values. The participants read the same material and tried all interventions. After about half of the treatment, a main focus was chosen according to their specific problem in a discussion with the therapist.

Therapist and Supervisor

The therapist (DK) was a master’s student at the time of the study and was trained in CBT. His supervisor for the master’s thesis (BL) also acted as a therapy supervisor. The supervisor is a professor of psychology and a licensed psychologist specialized in CBT. The therapist could be reached through text messages in the online platform at any time throughout the treatment. The role of the therapist was to provide guidance and support, provide feedback, and answer questions. The therapist also gave access to the next module after the previous one was completed. Study participants were notified by an automatic text message each time the therapist had made contact via the online platform. If participants were inactive, they were encouraged to continue their assignments via text messages or phone calls.

We mainly used a general cognitive-behavioral model, where we assumed that thoughts, emotions, and behaviors interact and influence each other, which was largely influenced by an exposure-based CBT program for IBS [ 9 ]. See Figures 1 and 2 for an overview. This model also assumes that these influence blood glucose levels directly via behaviors or indirectly via thoughts and emotions that influence behaviors. In some cases, emotions, such as stress, may influence general mood, which may directly influence blood glucose, as suggested by a CBT group treatment for T1DM [ 4 ]. Increased awareness may lead to symptom preoccupation, making a person more observant of potential symptoms [ 9 ]. We worked from an exposure-based paradigm, where we assumed that humans avoid unwanted experiences that may be aversive short term, but still are important and helpful [ 9 ]. Exposing oneself to aversive stimuli or situations decreases anxiety over time, most likely due to extinction of fear [ 7 ]. It is possible that symptoms of anxiety can overlap with symptoms of low blood glucose, thus conflating the two [ 4 ]. Exposing oneself to feared situations in the presence of anxiety symptoms should, according to this model, decrease fear of hypoglycemic symptoms, and decrease avoidance of feared situations or situations where low blood glucose levels would be unwanted.

The intervention also contained a few approaches that were not necessarily based on this model but did not contradict it, including cognitive restructuring, assertiveness communication skills, and life values. These were components from the previously evaluated CBT group treatment on which this intervention was partially based [ 4 ]. These were kept in addition to the main exposure-based model, in order to explore if these could be useful complementary interventions.

problem solving exposure therapy

Content of Treatment Modules

The module began with practicalities followed by general education on T1DM. The module also introduced the CBT model and education of general CBT principles. Participants were taught about our proposed interaction of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. This, in turn, would influence self-care and blood glucose levels. Participants were introduced to the concept of functional behavioral analysis and learned how to identify what prevented them from behaving in accordance with their goals.

The module continued the psychoeducation with a focus on stress and negative emotions. The intervention problem solving was introduced and presented mainly as an aid for self-care. This was presented as being particularly useful during periods of stress or negative mood, as sometimes self-care behaviors decrease in priority. The potential impacts of negative thoughts, as well as how to identify them were also taught. The participants identified any negative thoughts on their own and discussed how these might interfere with their everyday life, with a focus on diabetes.

The module contained psychoeducation about anxiety and worry, and the roles these play in unhelpful behaviors. The participants were educated about the concept of exposure to aversive stimuli, and were provided further information on how to facilitate behavioral change. This module also introduced life values, often used in acceptance and commitment therapy [ 24 ], as an additional intervention. The participants considered the various areas in their own life where diabetes could have interfered. The participants were also encouraged to plan and work toward better integrating diabetes self-care into the life they wished to lead. As an additional skill, the participants were taught about assertiveness training.

The module was mainly dedicated to exposure exercises. These were based on the problematic behaviors and situations participants had analyzed earlier in treatment. With the help of their therapist, the participants constructed an exposure hierarchy and used that to plan exposure exercises. If exposure to aversive stimuli was not appropriate, the participant would continue to work with behavioral change, for instance, with the help of problem solving and other helpful skills previously taught.

Modules 5-7

There was no additional information at this point in treatment. The participants continued to practice and were guided by their therapist as earlier. If a participant had a slower pace than 1 module per week, this could be a time to catch up.

In the final module, the participants constructed a maintenance plan, based on the skills they used the most.

The overall results in the 2 cases are presented in Table 2 .

a HbA 1c : glycated hemoglobin.

b Not reported.

c PAID: Problem Areas in Diabetes.

d HFS: Hypoglycemia Fear Scale.

e GAD-7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7.

f PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

g PSS: Perceived Stress Scale.

h SAQ: Subjective Assessment Questionnaire.

i N/A: not applicable.

j AEs: adverse events.

k CSQ: Client Satisfaction Questionnaire.

Problem solving was the primary intervention for Mr A. He was able to try out solutions to numerous problems. For example, he managed to fit squash into his schedule, and had a goal to play once a week with his friends and to walk 8000-12,000 steps per day, in order to get an adequate amount of daily exercise. He made a rule to only take one portion of food for each meal, and he found it effective to go against his worry to do these physical activities, even though they reminded him of his complications. This could possibly be considered a form of exposure to aversive stimuli. Before treatment, Mr A had a score of 50 in the problem areas on the diabetes scale. After treatment, the score had dropped to 28, meaning a decrease of 22 points. Answering a postmeasurement question, Mr A stated that his blood glucose greatly improved. Another improvement was clinically significantly decreased stress according to the perceived stress scale, with a score of 32 before treatment and 16 after treatment. Fear of hypoglycemia did not seem to be a problematic area for this participant, beginning with a low grade of 8 points compared to an average of 25 in a clinical sample [ 4 ]. The value increased somewhat to about 20 through the course of treatment, but gradually decreased again to a score of 7 after treatment. Mr A reported 75 out of 100 points in the CSQ, indicating a high satisfaction with treatment. He stated that he was very satisfied with the treatment overall. Mr A also gave feedback on the psychoeducation material, feeling that the material was too long, and he wished for it to be more concise and to the point.

After treatment, Mr A reported his long-term blood glucose levels to us, which showed a decrease in HbA 1c from 60 to 50 mmol/mol, which is not only a clinically significant change in the desired direction, but also within the general goal value of <52 mmol/mol in Swedish diabetes care [ 25 ]. Mr A reported that it was the best HbA 1c value in his clinical history and that he attributed this to the treatment. It is important to remember that a decrease in HbA 1c does not necessarily equal a healthier lifestyle but could be a misleading finding because of repeated hypoglycemic episodes. This was not the case for this participant, however, as neither increased frequency of hypoglycemia nor any other adverse events were reported upon questioning. There were still some hyperglycemic episodes, meaning that there was room for continued decrease in hyperglycemia, but the blood glucose levels were quite satisfactory overall, according to the Swedish guidelines.

Overall, considering Mr A’s satisfaction with the treatment, the decreased problematic areas associated with his diabetes condition, and the decreased blood glucose levels, the treatment appeared to be successful.

Ms B’s treatment consisted mainly of exposure exercises aimed at her fear of hypoglycemia and associated avoidance behaviors. Another important area covered was her fear of visiting the diabetes hospital unit, which could be considered exposure to the emotion of shame, as hospital visits reminded her of her perceived failures as a patient with diabetes. She gradually approached health care, attending a lecture at her diabetes clinic about complications and their prevention. She reported that this increased her anxiety severely, but she was able to stay in the situation until it reduced. As a result of this, Ms B reported that she was able to form a better relationship with her diabetes care staff, which could prove beneficial to her future health. Another important area was the safety behavior of eating extra food before bedtime to decrease the risk of night-time hypoglycemia. Ms B gradually decreased the amount she ate and was eventually able to overcome this safety behavior, with potentially significant results for her overall blood glucose levels. Initially, she reported increased anxiety and difficulty falling asleep. She also reported waking in the middle of the night, feeling anxious, and checking her blood glucose levels. After less than a week, however, she reported that her anxiety started to subside and that she was able to sleep uninterrupted again. Eventually, she was able to stop the safety behavior of excessive eating before bedtime.

Ms B reported a significant decrease in diabetes-specific problems, with a decrease from 92 to 53 on the PAID Scale. This is still a high number, but the decrease was much greater than the expected decrease after education only, according to the authors of the scale. Relevant to her main problems, Ms B reported a significantly lower fear of hypoglycemia of 40 points on the hypoglycemia fear scale compared with 64 points before treatment, which was a clinically significant decrease, and she rated her blood glucose levels as somewhat improved. Ms B reported a score of 100 out of 100 points on the client satisfaction scale, indicating excellent treatment satisfaction. Unfortunately, we did not know if the treatment had any effects on Ms B’s blood glucose or HbA 1c levels, as she did not report a posttreatment HbA 1c value. Nevertheless, we consider the treatment successful because the treatment was able to target her fear of hypoglycemia using exposure to feared stimuli. It should be noted that her depression rating increased after the treatment, as measured by the patient health questionnaire. When asked, she did not think that this was a negative effect of the intervention but attributed her decreased mood to external factors.

No adverse events or other unexpected events were reported in either of the cases.

In this case study, the online guided self-help CBT treatment of 2 participants has been described. The aim was to test an early version of this treatment, in order to revise and improve the protocol. The 2 participants were treated using the same treatment manual, and they read every module and tried all interventions. However, they both had a personalized focus. In case 1, the participant Mr A chose to focus on problem solving in the later part of the treatment. After treatment, he showed improved blood glucose and other relevant improvements. In case 2, the participant Ms B. chose to focus on exposure in the later part of treatment. She showed a significant decrease in her fear of hypoglycemia and other relevant improvements.

Principal Findings

In the 2 cases, participants had favorable outcomes on their most relevant measurements. The participants completed all modules and were highly satisfied with their treatment. Mr A felt mainly helped by problem solving, which is logical, as this intervention was most suitable to help him accomplish the lifestyle changes desired. Conversely, Mr A found it difficult and redundant to construct exposure exercises, as he did not consider himself to be driven by fear or anxiety. Instead, he preferred to focus on structured problem solving. We believe, however, that there were some elements of exposure to other avoided emotions involved, such as worry and discomfort. Ms B focused on exposure for her fear of hypoglycemia, which was much improved, as well as her general problem areas in diabetes.


The results from this case study must be carefully considered as there are limitations. This is a report on only 2 cases, and the participants may have had personal characteristics and environmental factors that could explain their improvements. Furthermore, we were not able to control for attention. We do not know if their improvements are due to the treatment or the fact that someone kept a watchful eye on them. In fact, Mr A stated that he partially attributed attention from the therapist as a factor for his improvement. Finally, we did not receive a report on Ms B’s blood glucose level. This is significant missing data, which we have no easy way of retrieving.

Comparison With Prior Work

To our knowledge, this is the first study that tentatively explored an online CBT intervention with an exposure model for T1DM. The outcomes are consistent with those in earlier studies on CBT and T1DM, as CBT has been shown to improve blood glucose and mental health [ 4 , 12 ]. The experiences of these participants indicate that a CBT treatment with multiple interventions may be useful. For example, an entirely exposure-focused treatment would have been less relevant for Mr A. The results of Ms B are in line with the findings in few previous studies that have evaluated exposure to aversive stimuli as an intervention for fear of hypoglycemia [ 4 , 8 ].


These cases provide some insights on how an online-delivered T1DM CBT program could look, and preliminarily suggest that the use of both problem solving and exposure could be useful in CBT for T1DM. In accordance with the feedback of Mr A, the treatment can be further adapted to decrease the amount of text and introduce learning exercises through examples. These changes may improve the treatment and make the information focused and relatable. Looking forward, we suggest a feasibility study with a larger group of participants, to examine the safety, acceptability, and approach of the intervention, as well as its preliminary effects.

Patient Perspective

Mr A was very satisfied with his experience overall and felt that his condition was much improved. As mentioned, he had some critique of the education material provided, but felt that the contact with the therapist made up for it. Ms B was very satisfied and felt that her condition was much improved. She especially appreciated the applied and concrete nature of CBT.


We would like to thank Susanne Amsberg, PhD and Therese Anderbro, PhD for allowing us access to their cognitive behavioral therapy–based group treatment manual for type 1 diabetes mellitus, which served as valuable inspiration for the construction of the online intervention. We also would like to thank Eva Toft, MD, PhD for excellent medical expertise.

Authors' Contributions

DK: study design, drafting of the manuscript, and analysis; BL: study design and contributions to the manuscript; MB: contributions to the design of the treatment manual and contributions to the manuscript; NL: contributions to the manuscript; MK: contributions to the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

BL owns shares in DahliaQomit, which specializes in online services for symptom assessment outside the submitted work, and licenses a cognitive behavioral treatment manual for irritable bowel syndrome, with royalties paid from Pear Therapeutics. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

  • Amsberg S. Health Promotion in Diabetes Care - Studies on adult type 1 diabetes patients. Open Archive. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet; 2008.   URL: [accessed 2022-05-14]
  • Mazze RS, Strock ES, Simonson GD, Bergenstal RM. Staged Diabetes Management: A Systematic Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
  • Hillson R. Diabetes Care: A Practical Manual. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2012.
  • Anderbro T. Behaviour change intervention and fear of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. Open Archive. Stockholm, Sweden: Karolinska Institutet; 2012.   URL: [accessed 2022-05-14]
  • Wild D, von Maltzahn R, Brohan E, Christensen T, Clauson P, Gonder-Frederick L. A critical review of the literature on fear of hypoglycemia in diabetes: Implications for diabetes management and patient education. Patient Educ Couns 2007 Sep;68(1):10-15. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Safren SA, Gonzalez JS, Soroudi N. Coping with Chronic Illness: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach for Adherence and Depression, Therapist Guide. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2007.
  • Sewart AR, Craske MG. Inhibitory learning. In: Abramowitz JS, Blakey SM, editors. Clinical handbook of fear and anxiety: Maintenance processes and treatment mechanisms. Washington, DC, USA: American Psychological Association; 2020:265-285.
  • Boyle S, Allan C, Millar K. Cognitive-behavioural interventions in a patient with an anxiety disorder related to diabetes. Behav Res Ther 2004 Mar;42(3):357-366. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Ljótsson B, Falk L, Vesterlund AW, Hedman E, Lindfors P, Rück C, et al. Internet-delivered exposure and mindfulness based therapy for irritable bowel syndrome--a randomized controlled trial. Behav Res Ther 2010 Jun;48(6):531-539. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Särnholm J, Skúladóttir H, Rück C, Klavebäck S, Ólafsdóttir E, Pedersen SS, et al. Internet-Delivered Exposure-Based Therapy for Symptom Preoccupation in Atrial Fibrillation: Uncontrolled Pilot Trial. JMIR Cardio 2021 Mar 02;5(1):e24524 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Bonnert M, Andersson E, Serlachius E, Manninen I, Bergström SE, Almqvist C. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety related to asthma: A feasibility study with multivariate baseline design. Scand J Psychol 2020 Dec;61(6):827-834. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Young-Hyman D, de Groot M, Hill-Briggs F, Gonzalez JS, Hood K, Peyrot M. Response to Comment on Young-Hyman et al. Psychosocial Care for People With Diabetes: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2016;39:2126-2140. Diabetes Care 2018 Mar;41(3):e33-e34 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Andersson G, Titov N. Advantages and limitations of Internet-based interventions for common mental disorders. World Psychiatry 2014 Feb;13(1):4-11 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Yang X, Li Z, Sun J. Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Based Intervention on Improving Glycaemic, Psychological, and Physiological Outcomes in Adult Patients With Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Front Psychiatry 2020 Jul 28;11:711 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Earles J, Dudl RJ, Lees J, Mullan J, et al. Assessing psychosocial distress in diabetes: development of the diabetes distress scale. Diabetes Care 2005 Mar;28(3):626-631. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Cox DJ, Irvine A, Gonder-Frederick L, Nowacek G, Butterfield J. Fear of hypoglycemia: quantification, validation, and utilization. Diabetes Care 1987;10(5):617-621. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006 May 22;166(10):1092-1097. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001 Sep;16(9):606-613 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983 Dec;24(4):385-396. [ Medline ]
  • Devilly GJ, Borkovec TD. Psychometric properties of the credibility/expectancy questionnaire. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2000 Jun;31(2):73-86. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Camilleri M. Editorial: is adequate relief fatally flawed or adequate as an end point in irritable bowel syndrome? Am J Gastroenterol 2009 Apr;104(4):920-922 [ FREE Full text ] [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Amsberg S, Anderbro T, Wredling R, Lisspers J, Lins P, Adamson U, et al. A cognitive behavior therapy-based intervention among poorly controlled adult type 1 diabetes patients--a randomized controlled trial. Patient Educ Couns 2009 Oct;77(1):72-80. [ CrossRef ] [ Medline ]
  • Hayes SC, Wilson KG, Gifford EV, Follette VM, Strosahl K. Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996 Dec;64(6):1152-1168. [ CrossRef ]
  • Nationella riktlinjer för diabetesvård Stöd för styrning och ledning. Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. 2018.   URL: https:/​/www.​​globalassets/​sharepoint-dokument/​artikelkatalog/​nationella-riktlinjer/​2018-10-25.​pdf [accessed 2021-08-05]


Edited by A Mavragani; submitted 30.08.21; peer-reviewed by E Bernstein, H Alyami, K Matsumoto; comments to author 12.11.21; revised version received 04.02.22; accepted 03.05.22; published 13.07.22

©Dorian Kern, Brjánn Ljótsson, Marianne Bonnert, Nils Lindefors, Martin Kraepelien. Originally published in JMIR Formative Research (, 13.07.2022.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Formative Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.


  1. A practical guide to the management of phobias

    problem solving exposure therapy

  2. Exposure Response Therapy

    problem solving exposure therapy

  3. What Is Exposure Therapy?

    problem solving exposure therapy

  4. Exposure Therapy: How does it work and who can benefit from it?

    problem solving exposure therapy

  5. Exposure Therapy

    problem solving exposure therapy

  6. Narrative exposure therapy

    problem solving exposure therapy


  1. @#Relax: music, problem solving episodes for peer review

  2. 528HZ


  4. 4-26-2023 Artful Memories #139 PLWD 1030

  5. Mental Health Therapist in Palm Beach, Couples Therapy in Palm Beach County

  6. Did You Know That Koreans Don't Use Number 4? 😮😱 #facts #viral #shortvideo


  1. Exposure Therapy

    What is exposure therapy? Exposure therapy is used to help people confront and overcome their fears through desensitization

  2. Improvement in quality of life after exposure therapy, problem solving and combined

    Studies have indicated that behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments are effective in reducing symptoms of PTSD and depression.MethodsIn this study we evaluated the efficacy of problem solving in

  3. Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Amherst, MA

    Find Prolonged Exposure Therapy, Psychologists and Prolonged Exposure Therapy Counseling in Amherst, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, get help for Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Amherst

  4. Psychological Therapies

    Psychology, Fourth Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli

  5. JMIR Formative Research

    There are several problem areas in diabetes that could be addressed by psychological interventions, such as suboptimal problem-solving strategies and fear of hypoglycemia