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What are the Eight Disciplines (8D)?

Quality Glossary Definition: Eight disciplines (8D) model

The eight disciplines (8D) model is a problem solving approach typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals, and is most commonly used by the automotive industry but has also been successfully applied in healthcare, retail, finance, government, and manufacturing. The purpose of the 8D methodology is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, making it useful in product and process improvement.

The 8D problem solving model establishes a permanent corrective action based on statistical analysis of the problem and focuses on the origin of the problem by determining its root causes. Although it originally comprised eight stages, or disciplines, the eight disciplines system was later augmented by an initial planning stage.

How to Use the 8D Approach

Eight Disciplines (8D)

List of the Eight Disciplines (8D)

You can also search articles , case studies , and publications  for 8D resources.

Introduction To 8D Problem Solving

A Disciplined Approach ( Quality Progress ) Nothing causes anxiety for a team quite like the release of a corrective action preventive action (CAPA) system and accompanying eight disciplines (8D) model. Follow this step-by-step explanation of 8D to reassure your team and get results.

In the Loop ( Quality Progress ) An 8D report is a quality report suppliers use to inform a customer about the status of complaint-related actions. Use this refresher to help track the status of customer complaints.

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What is 8D? A template for efficient problem-solving

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How you respond when problems arise is one of the most defining qualities of a manager. Luckily, there are tools you can use to master problem-solving. The 8D method of problem-solving combines teamwork and basic statistics to help you reach a logical solution and prevent new issues from arising.

You’ve spent months overseeing the development of your company's newest project. From initiation, planning, and execution, you’re confident this may be your best work yet.

Until the feedback starts rolling in.

There’s no sugar-coating it—things don’t always go as planned. But production or process issues are hardly a signal to throw in the towel. Instead, focus on honing your problem-solving skills to find a solution that keeps it from happening again. 

The 8D method of problem solving emphasizes the importance of teamwork to not only solve your process woes but prevent new ones from occurring. In this guide, we’ll break down what 8D is, how to use this methodology, and the benefits it can give to you and your team. Plus, get an 8D template to make solving your issue easier. 

What is 8D?

The eight disciplines (8D) method is a problem-solving approach that identifies, corrects, and eliminates recurring problems. By determining the root causes of a problem, managers can use this method to establish a permanent corrective action and prevent recurring issues. 

How do you use the 8D method?

The 8D method is a proven strategy for avoiding long-term damage from recurring problems. If you’re noticing issues in your workflow or processes, then it’s a good time to give this problem-solving method a try. 

To complete an 8D analysis, follow “the eight disciplines” to construct a statistical analysis of the problem and determine the best solution.

The eight disciplines of problem-solving

8D stands for the eight disciplines you will use to establish an 8D report. As you may notice, this outline starts with zero, which makes nine total disciplines. The “zero stage” was developed later as an initial planning stage. 

To illustrate these steps, imagine your organization experienced a decline in team innovation and productivity this past year. Your stakeholders have noticed and want to see changes implemented within the next six months. Below, we’ll use the 8D process to uncover a morale-boosting solution.

[inline illustration] D8 problem solving approach (infographic)

D0: Prepare and plan

Before starting the problem-solving process, evaluate the problem you want to solve. Understanding the background of the problem will help you identify the root cause in later steps. 

Collect information about how the problem has affected a process or product and what the most severe consequences may be. Planning can include:

Gathering data

Determining the prerequisites for solving the problem

Collecting feedback from others involved

[inline illustration] D0 Planning (example)

If we look back at our example, you may want to figure out whether this decline in morale is organization-wide or only applies to a few departments. Consider interviewing a few employees from different departments and levels of management to gain some perspective. Next, determine what knowledge and skills you will need to solve this lapse in productivity. 

D1: Form your team

Create a cross-functional team made up of people who have knowledge of the various products and workflows involved. These team members should have the skills needed to solve the problem and put corrective actions in place. 

Steps in this discipline may include:

Appointing a team leader

Developing and implementing team guidelines

Determining team goals and priorities

Assigning individual roles

Arranging team-building activities

[inline illustration] D1 Team members (example)

From our example, a solid team would consist of people with first-hand experience with the issues—like representatives from all departments and key people close to workshop-level work. You may also want to pull someone in from your HR department to help design and implement a solution. Most importantly, make sure the people you choose want to be involved and contribute to the solution.

D2: Identify the problem

You may have a good understanding of your problem by now, but this phase aims to break it down into clear and quantifiable terms by identifying the five W’s a and two H’s (5W2H):

Who first reported the problem?

What is the problem about?

When did it occur and how often?

Where did it occur (relating to the sector, supplier, machine, or production line involved)?

Why is solving the problem important?

How was the problem first detected?

How many parts/units/customers are affected?

[inline illustration] D2 Problem statement & description (example)

Use your team’s insights to answer these questions. From our example, your team may conclude that: 

Employees feel overwhelmed with their current workload. 

There is no real structure or opportunity to share new ideas.

Managers have had no training for meetings or innovation settings.

Disgruntled employees know they can achieve more—and want to achieve more—even if they seem disengaged.

Once you answer these questions, record an official problem statement to describe the issue. If possible, include photos, videos, and diagrams to ensure all parties have a clear understanding of the problem. It may also help to create a flowchart of the process that includes various steps related to the problem description.

D3: Develop an interim containment plan

Much like we can expect speedy first aid after an accident, your team should take immediate actions to ensure you contain the problem—especially if the problem is related to customer safety. 

An interim containment plan will provide a temporary solution to isolate the problem from customers and clients while your team works to develop a permanent corrective action. This band-aid will help keep your customers informed and safe—and your reputation intact.

[inline illustration] D3 Interim containment action (example)

Because your findings revealed workers were overworked and managers lacked training, your team suggests scheduling a few mandatory training sessions for leaders of each department covering time and stress management and combating burnout . You may also want to have a presentation outlining the topics of this training to get key managers and stakeholders interested and primed for positive upcoming changes. 

D4: Verify root causes and escape points

Refer back to your findings and consult with your team about how the problem may have occurred. The root cause analysis involves mapping each potential root cause against the problem statement and its related test data. Make sure to test all potential causes—fuzzy brainstorming and sloppy analyses may cause you to overlook vital information. 

[inline illustration] D4 Root cause & escape points (example)

In our example, focus on the “why” portion of the 5W2H. You and your team identify six root causes:

Managers have never had any training

There is a lack of trust and psychological safety

Employees don’t understand the objectives and goals

Communication is poor

Time management is poor

Employees lack confidence

In addition to identifying the root causes, try to pinpoint where you first detected the problem in the process, and why it went unnoticed. This is called the escape point, and there may be more than one. 

D5: Choose permanent corrective actions

Work with your team to determine the most likely solution to remove the root cause of the problem and address the issues with the escape points. Quantitatively confirm that the selected permanent corrective action(s) (PCA) will resolve the problem for the customer. 

Steps to choosing a PCA may include:

Determining if you require further expertise

Ensuring the 5W2Hs are defined correctly

Carrying out a decision analysis and risk assessment

Considering alternative measures

Collecting evidence to prove the PCA will be effective

[inline illustration] D5 Permanent corrective action (example)

Your team decides to roll out the training used in the interim plan to all employees, with monthly company-wide workshops on improving well-being. You also plan to implement meetings, innovation sessions, and team-coaching training for managers. Lastly, you suggest adopting software to improve communication and collaboration. 

D6: Implement your corrective actions

Once all parties have agreed on a solution, the next step is to create an action plan to remove the root causes and escape points. Once the solution is in effect, you can remove your interim containment actions.

After seeing success with the training in the interim phase, your stakeholders approve all of your team’s proposed PCAs. Your representative from HR also plans to implement periodic employee wellness checks to track employee morale .

[inline illustration] D6 PCA implementation plan (example)

To ensure your corrective action was a success, monitor the results, customer, or employee feedback over a long period of time and take note of any negative effects. Setting up “controls” like employee wellness checks will help you validate whether your solution is working or more needs to be done. 

D7: Take preventive measures

One of the main benefits of using the 8D method is the improved ability to identify necessary systematic changes to prevent future issues from occurring. Look for ways to improve your management systems, operating methods, and procedures to not only eliminate your current problem, but stop similar problems from developing later on.

[inline illustration] D7 Preventive measure (example)

Based on our example, the training your team suggested is now adopted in the new manager onboarding curriculum. Every manager now has a “meeting system” that all meetings must be guided by, and workloads and projects are managed as a team within your new collaboration software . Innovation is improving, and morale is at an all-time high!

D8: Celebrate with your team

The 8D method of problem-solving is impossible to accomplish without dedicated team members and first-class collaboration. Once notes, lessons, research, and test data are documented and saved, congratulate your teammates on a job well done! Make an effort to recognize each individual for their contribution to uncovering a successful solution.

[inline illustration] 8D Team congratulations & reward (example)

8D report template and example

Check out our 8D report template below to help you record your findings as you navigate through the eight disciplines of problem solving. This is a formal report that can be used as a means of communication within companies, which makes for transparent problem-solving that you can apply to the entire production or process chain.

Benefits of using the 8D method

The 8D method is one of the most popular problem-solving strategies for good reason. Its strength lies in teamwork and fact-based analyses to create a culture of continuous improvement —making it one of the most effective tools for quality managers. The benefits of using the 8D method include: 

Improved team-oriented problem-solving skills rather than relying on an individual to provide a solution

Increased familiarity with a problem-solving structure

A better understanding of how to use basic statistical tools for problem-solving

Open and honest communication in problem-solving discussions

Prevent future problems from occurring by identifying system weaknesses and solutions

Improved effectiveness and efficiency at problem-solving

Better collaboration = better problem solving

No matter how good a manager you are, production and process issues are inevitable. It’s how you solve them that separates the good from the great. The 8D method of problem solving allows you to not only solve the problem at hand but improve team collaboration, improve processes, and prevent future issues from arising. 

Try Asana’s project management tool to break communication barriers and keep your team on track.

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What is 8D Report? Meaning, how to fill and a template

8D Report - Toolshero

8D Report: this article explains the 8D Report in a practical way. Besides the explanation of what this concept is, we also the 8 disciplines and the importance of teamwork. Next to that we also provide a template to get strated. Enjoy reading!

What is an 8D Report? The meaning

The 8D Report or 8d corrective action report is a problem-solving approach for product and process improvement. Furthermore, 8D Methodology is used to implement structural long-term solutions to prevent recurring problems. The 8D Report was first used in the automotive industry.

During World War II the 8D Method was used in Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) in the United States under Military Standard 1520. It was later used and popularized by car manufacturer Ford .

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In the 1990s Ford continued to develop the 8D process as a result of which the process is said to have found its origin in the automotive industry.

Today, the 8D Method can be used to write formal reports (8D Report) and it can be applied as a working and thinking method for smaller problems.

The 8D Report is also used as a means of communication within companies, which makes the problem solving method transparent and can therefore be applied to the entire production chain. The 8D method is also known as: Global 8D , Ford 8D or TOPS 8D .

8D Report: eight disciplines

The 8D Methodology mainly focuses on solving problems and comprises 8 steps or disciplines. It helps quality control staff find the root cause of problems within a production process in a structured manner so that they can resolve the problem(s).

In addition, it helps implement product or process improvements, which can prevent problems. The 8D Report is about mobilizing a good team that has sufficient expertise and experience to solve or prevent problems. The 8D Report consists of 8 disciplines that describe corrective measures based on the statistical analysis of the problem. This results in the following eight process steps:

8D Report disciplines - Toolshero

Figure 1 – 8D report: the eight disciplines

D1 – Create a team

Mobilizing a good team is essential. The team must preferably be multidisciplinary. Due to a varied combination of knowledge, skills and experience, one can look at a problem from different perspectives.

Besides having an effective team leader, it is also advisable to record team structure, goals, different team roles, procedures and rules in advance so that the team can begin taking action quickly and effectively, and there is no room for misunderstandings.

D2 – Describe the problem

Define the problem as objectively as possible. The 5W2H analysis (who, what, when, where, why, how, how much) is a welcome addition to the problem analysis and can help to arrive at a clear description of the problem.

D3 – Interim containment action

It may be necessary to implement temporary fixes. For example, to help or meet a customer quickly or when a deadline has to be met. It is about preventing a problem from getting worse until a permanent solution is implemented.

D4 – Identify the root cause

Before a permanent solution is found, it is important to identify all possible root causes that could explain why the problem occurred. Various methods can be used for this purpose, such as the fishbone diagram (Ishikawa) which considers factors such as people, equipment, machines and methods or the 5 whys method.

All causes must be checked and/ or proven and it is good to check why the problem was not noticed at the time it occurred.

Take a look at our article on Root Cause Analysis , a method of problem solving that aims at identifying the root causes of problems or incidents.

D5 – Developing permanent corrective actions

As soon as the root cause of the problem has been identified, it is possible to search for the best possible solution. Again various problem solving methods can be used such as value analysis and creative problem solving.

From here, permanent corrective actions can be selected and it must be confirmed that the selected corrective actions will not cause undesirable side effects. It is therefore advisable to define contingency actions that will be useful in unforeseen circumstances.

D6 – Implementing permanent corrective actions

As soon as the permanent corrective actions are identified, they can be implemented. By planning ongoing controls, possible underlying root causes are detected far in advance.

The long term effects should be monitored and unforeseen circumstances should be taken into account.

D7 – Preventive measures

Prevention is the best cure. This is why additional measures need to be taken to prevent similar problems. Preventative measures ensure that the possibility of recurrence is minimised. It is advisable to review management systems, operating systems and procedures, so that they can be improved procedures if necessary.

D8 – Congratulate the team

By congratulating the team on the results realized, all member are rewarded for their joint efforts. This is the most important step within the 8D method; without the team the root cause of the problem would not have been found and fixed.

By putting the team on a pedestal and sharing the knowledge throughout the organization, team motivation will be high to solve a problem the next time it presents itself.

A strength of the 8D Report is its focus on teamwork. The team as a whole is believed to be better and smarter than the sum of the qualities of the individuals. Not every problem justifies or requires the 8D Report.

Furthermore, the 8D Report is a fact-based problem solving process, which requires a number of specialized skills, as well as a culture of continuous improvement. It could be that training of the team members is required before 8D can work effectively within an organization.

The team must recognize the importance of cooperation in order to arrive at the best possible solution for implementation.

8D Report template

Ready to start with the 8D problem-solving approach? Start describing the different disciplines of 8D with this 8D Report template.

Download the 8D Report template

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It’s Your Turn

What do you think? Can you apply the 8D Report in today’s modern business companies? Do you recognize the practical explanation or do you have more suggestions? What are your success factors for problem analysis and problem solving?

Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below.

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What stands for D in 8D…?

8d report qualität

The D in 8D stands for 8 Disciplines / Eight Disciplines.

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Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

– Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving –

⇓   Introduction to 8D

⇓   What is 8D

⇓   Why Apply 8D

⇓   When to Apply 8D

⇓   How to Apply 8D

Quality and Reliability Support | Quality-One

Introduction to Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D) is a problem solving methodology designed to find the root cause of a problem, devise a short-term fix and implement a long-term solution to prevent recurring problems. When it’s clear that your product is defective or isn’t satisfying your customers, an 8D is an excellent first step to improving Quality and Reliability.

Ford Motor Company developed this problem solving methodology, then known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS), in the 1980s. The early usage of 8D proved so effective that it was adopted by Ford as the primary method of documenting problem solving efforts, and the company continues to use 8D today.

8D has become very popular among manufacturers because it is effective and reasonably easy to teach. Below you’ll find the benefits of an 8D, when it is appropriate to perform and how it is performed.

What is Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D problem solving process is a detailed, team oriented approach to solving critical problems in the production process. The goals of this method are to find the root cause of a problem, develop containment actions to protect customers and take corrective action to prevent similar problems in the future.

The strength of the 8D process lies in its structure, discipline and methodology. 8D uses a composite methodology, utilizing best practices from various existing approaches. It is a problem solving method that drives systemic change, improving an entire process in order to avoid not only the problem at hand but also other issues that may stem from a systemic failure.

8D has grown to be one of the most popular problem solving methodologies used for Manufacturing, Assembly and Services around the globe. Read on to learn about the reasons why the Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving may be a good fit for your company.

8D - Problem Solving Format

Why Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D methodology is so popular in part because it offers your engineering team a consistent, easy-to-learn and thorough approach to solving whatever problems might arise at various stages in your production process. When properly applied, you can expect the following benefits:

8D was created to represent the best practices in problem solving. When performed correctly, this methodology not only improves the Quality and Reliability of your products but also prepares your engineering team for future problems.

When to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D problem solving process is typically required when:

How to Apply Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

The 8D process alternates inductive and deductive problem solving tools to relentlessly move forward toward a solution. The Quality-One approach uses a core team of three individuals for inductive activities with data driven tools and then a larger Subject Matter Expert (SME) group for the deductive activities through brainstorming, data-gathering and experimentation.

D0: Prepare and Plan for the 8D

Proper planning will always translate to a better start. Thus, before 8D analysis begins, it is always a good idea to ask an expert first for their impressions. After receiving feedback, the following criterion should be applied prior to forming a team:

Collect information on the symptoms

Use a Symptoms Checklist to ask the correct questions

Identify the need for an Emergency Response Action (ERA), which protects the customer from further exposure to the undesired symptoms

D1: Form a Team

A Cross Functional Team (CFT) is made up of members from many disciplines. Quality-One takes this principle one step further by having two levels of CFT:

Teams require proper preparation. Setting the ground rules is paramount. Implementation of disciplines like checklists, forms and techniques will ensure steady progress.  8D must always have two key members: a Leader and a Champion / Sponsor:

D2: Describe the Problem

The 8D method’s initial focus is to properly describe the problem utilizing the known data and placing it into specific categories for future comparisons. The “Is” data supports the facts whereas the “Is Not” data does not. As the “Is Not” data is collected, many possible reasons for failure are able to be eliminated. This approach utilizes the following tools:

D3: Interim Containment Action

In the interim, before the permanent corrective action has been determined, an action to protect the customer can be taken. The Interim Containment Action (ICA) is temporary and is typically removed after the Permanent Correct Action (PCA) is taken.

D4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point

The root cause must be identified to take permanent action to eliminate it. The root cause definition requires that it can be turned on or off, at will. Activities in D4 include:

D5: Permanent Corrective Action (PCA)

The PCA is directed toward the root cause and removes / changes the conditions of the product or process that was responsible for the problem. Activities in D5 include:

D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action

To successfully implement a permanent change, proper planning is essential. A project plan should encompass: communication, steps to complete, measurement of success and lessons learned. Activities in D6 include:

D7: Prevent Recurrence

D7 affords the opportunity to preserve and share the knowledge, preventing problems on similar products, processes, locations or families. Updating documents and procedures / work instructions are expected at this step to improve future use. Activities in D7 include:

D8: Closure and Team Celebration

Teams require feedback to allow for satisfactory closure. Recognizing both team and individual efforts and allowing the team to see the previous and new state solidifies the value of the 8D process. Activities in D8 include:

8D - D0 Reference Card

8D and Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

The 8D process has Root Cause Analysis (RCA) imbedded within it. All problem solving techniques include RCA within their structure. The steps and techniques within 8D which correspond to Root Cause Analysis are as follows:

Is Is Not Example

Example: Multiple Why Technique

The Multiple / Repeated Why (Similar to 5 Why) is an inductive tool, which means facts are required to proceed to a more detailed level. The steps required to determine problem statement are:

This example uses only 4 of the 5 Whys to determine the root causes without going further into the systemic reasons that supported the failure. The Repeated Why is one way to depict this failure chain. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) could also be used.

3 Legged 5 Why

Learn More About Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving (8D)

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8D Problem Solving Report

8D is a problem solving method used globally, mainly in manufacturing industry by Quality Engineers and Operations managers. The purpose of 8D problem solving method is to identify, correct and prevent problems affecting customers and operational efficiency. It is a problem solving approach similar to PDCA cycle (Plan – Do – Check – Act).

8D stands for 8 Disciplines. It is a methodology that emphasizes “No problem should be repeated but fixed permanently”.

8D Problem Solving Method originally evolved during Second World War. But it became an official methodology in 1974, when it was used by US Government for its Military Operations as ‘Military Standard 1520’. Later it was adapted and popularized by Ford Motors with slight modification in the methodology.

As the name indicates 8D has 8 disciplines that any process or operations should follow to solve the problems occurring. The outcome of 8D is a report called ‘8D Report’ that records the problems, root cause(s) and corrective and preventive actions.

The below are the D’s in 8D approach:


Figure 1: 8D Problem Solving Approach

1D  – Team Formation: The first and foremost step not only in 8D but also in any other initiative or project is Team Formation, for any initiative cannot be successful without a right team. The team selected should be committed, competent, co-ordinated, cross-functional with representation from all teams, and should be knowledgeable in 8D methodology.

2D – Problem Description: After selecting the team, our concentration should be on detailing the problem. The team should collect details about the problem, for completely understanding the depth of the problem. All details should be data and fact based.

3D – Interim Containment Actions: Once the problem is described, before heading up to problem solving, the team should fix the effect of the problem, especially on customers. It might involve actions like isolating the items affected, replacing defective parts, before it reaches the customers. This step is mainly to prevent the problem from reaching the market and customers, which might become a competitive disadvantage and reduce customer loyalty.

4D – Root Cause Analysis: After taking containment actions, the team should involve in identifying the root cause(s) for the problem. Methods and tools like 5-Why Analysis , Fishbone diagram , Pareto Analysis , 7 Old QC tools , New QC tools etc. can be used for identifying the root cause. An important point to be noted is: Whatever method is used for RCA , it should be data & fact based.

5D – Formulate Corrective Actions: After successfully arriving at the root cause, the team should formulate corrective actions to be taken to correct the problem. Tools like Brain storming, Affinity diagram etc. can be used.

6D – Validate Corrective Actions: After arriving at the corrective actions, the team should validate whether the solutions are effective. There are several tools like Accelerated life testing , simulation etc. available for this purpose. Then the solution can be implemented in the process. The solution approach from step 4-6 should be repeated until the problem is completely eliminated.

7D – Preventive Action: Identifying and implementing corrective actions is only a temporary solution that keeps the system running or is like ‘Living with the problem by taking counter measures’. The permanent solution is to identify a potential long term solution that will not allow the problem (similar problems) from occurring into the system again. Sometimes corrective action will be a costly, time being measure. Preventive action makes changes in the system, upstream or downstream processes so that the entire system is modified or aligned for ‘Problem Free’ operations.

8D – Team and Individual Recognition: Once the problem is completely solved, the team and the extra-ordinary contributors must be rewarded and recognized appropriately. This will act as a motivation factor for other employees.

These are the steps of 8D methodology. To summarize, 8D is a holistic, systematic and proven methodology for problem solving.

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What is Complaint management / 8D-Reports?

Complaint management includes all systematic measures taken by the company in the event of customer complaints and grievances in connection with the services provided by the company or its intermediaries. Complaint management is part of quality management. Therefore, it regulates short- and long-term methods of handling complaints, for which a team of complaint experts is formed in the first phase of their examination.

An 8D report is a document that is exchanged between supplier and customer (but also internally) as part of quality management in the event of a complaint. An 8D report is thus part of the complaint management and serves the quality assurance at the supplier. 8D stands for the eight mandatory disciplines or process steps that are required in the processing of a complaint in order to overcome the underlying problem.

The eight disciplines are described as follows:

D1 – Assembling a team for problem solving

Team participants should have sufficient process and product knowledge. Furthermore, they should be willing to cooperate and be equipped with the indispensable knowledge and skills to analyze the problem for its causes, initiate corrective measures and verify their effectiveness.

D2 – Problem description

The problem should be defined as precisely as possible, identifying and quantifying the core of the problem.

D3 – Determine immediate measures

Immediate measures serve to limit the damage, to ensure the ability to deliver at least for the time being and to prevent the additional spread of the problem until a permanent solution is found (e.g. segregation with the aid of sorting inspection or 100% inspection of material suspected of being faulty).

D4 – Determine cause(s) of error

Causes of failure are searched for and the most likely root cause(s) are identified and proven using experiments, tests, and comparisons.

To ensure that consistent errors do not recur in the long term, the root cause analysis must look beyond the technological cause to the organizational level. For this purpose, an orientation towards the three areas “Why did the error occur?”, “Why was the error not detected?” and “Why was the error not avoided?” is recommended.

Depending on the problem, various methods can be used in D4 to determine the cause, such as the 5-Why method or the Ishikawa diagram.

D5 – Planning shutdown measures

Measures are defined that can eliminate the root causes. The optimal measure(s) will be selected, and tests will prove that the problem can be solved effectively and equally efficiently, and that there will be no undesirable side effects. When defining measures, the focus is on error prevention and not on error detection.

D6 – Introduction of the shutdown measures

The corrective actions can affect process parameters, product specifications and other specification documents, as well as test methods and employee qualifications. After successful preamble of the stop measure(s), the immediate measure(s) will be cancelled.

For the automotive industry, it is determined that only process-improving measures are permissible as shutdown measures in the sense of the 8D process. Personnel actions such as admonitions, training, or education are not considered process improvement.

D7 – Prevent error repetition

Preventive measures must be taken to ensure that the same or similar errors do not occur in the future. The effectiveness of the measures taken is monitored – e.g. by increasing the test severity – over an appropriate period of time. Producers of articles for the automotive and aviation industries are required to assess and minimize newly identified hazardous situations in the course of root cause identification in the development and manufacturing process according to the FMEA method – failure mode and effects analysis. The quality management system with its established procedures and controls may also need to be adapted to innovative requirements.

D8 – Appreciating the team performance

The joint effort is appreciated and the experience is shared.

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8D (Eight Disciplines) - The problem Solving tool

What is 8D (Eight Disciplines)? || Benefits of 8D (Eight Disciplines) || 8D (Eight Disciplines) Process Chart || 8D (Eight Disciplines) Methodology || 8D - Containment actions checklist || Verify Corrective Actions Process Flow || The 8D report

In this modern era, to sustain products in the market needs to use advanced manufacturing processes, modern machinery and cost effective processes for produce quality products with low cost. but as you all know that, it's difficult to constant manufacturing processes and sustain product quality. Because it is natural that, during the working time unexpected problems can be occurred and that kind of problems must be resolved in respective manner. Some organizations are used outmoded technique that solve the issues on temporary basis, as well those problems can be possible reoccur in processes in future. so, needs to efficient system that eliminate the possibility of reoccur issues as well as smooth the manufacturing processes. Fortunately, we have some problem solving tools can solve the issue permanently. 8D (Eight disciplines) is one of the popular problem solving tool that in now days, organizations are adopting pleasurably. OK, so let's see how to implement 8D in organization.

What is 8D (Eight Disciplines)?

8D model is systematic approach popularly used in responding to manufacturing issues. Generally, quality team conduct eight disciplines processes for identify root causes of problem and eliminate it by appropriate actions. The 8D (Eight Discipline) model is correctly identified the cause of the problem, and applied such actions to prevent recurrence of the problem. 8D is perform as preventive and corrective action system by implement step by step process to identify potential and actual problems in processes.

Benefits of 8D (Eight Disciplines)

  • The 8D method is very easy for implement in workplace as well as logical method that clearly indicate required steps of problem solution.
  • The method is very popular in automotive industry, mean your customer may ask for 8D report for its own application implementation. because it is reliable and well know problem solving tool for automotive industry.
  • An excellent way of reporting non conformances to suppliers and their corrective actions.
  • 8D helps to eliminate complicated issues at appropriate locations where defined the causes of the problem incorrect, lack of consequences in implementation and same problem appear again.
  • The team approach works best when the problem, and its associated information is labyrinthine. Because 8D is designed and capable for special cause of problems identification and elimination.

8D (Eight Disciplines) Process Chart: Table

8d (eight disciplines) methodology.

  • D1: Team Establishment
  • D2: Problem Description
  • D3: Containment Action
  • D4: Root cause
  • D5: Corrective Action
  • D6: Implement and validation corrective actions
  • D7: Prevent recurrence
  • D8: Verify and congratulate team

8D Eight Disciplines, 8D process, 8D problem solving, 8D report, 8D problem solving format, 8D methodlogy, 8D model

The 8D (eight Disciplines) is a process for systematic introduction of quality perfection, improvement and elimination of problems. Here in this article I will show you step by step approach and using several examples of the problem solving tools. When we involve in 8D methodology and its processes using a structured method, we become very effective at identifying cause of problems, defining problems and mistakes, as well as easily establish root causes and taking actions that solve and prevent problem identified in processes. So, let's see 8D (Eight Disciplines) in deep:

D0 » Plan

As you well know, whenever any problem occurring in the manufacturing processes before you must see some warning sign that indicate the problem which is being experienced in terms of an undesirable results and can be described using data to identify the variation as expected and actual results.

Actually, this is the preparation stage that required to be done before starting the eight disciplines processes in organization. Generally, peoples asking what type of preparation required before 8D process? - A deep analysis and empathetic of the issues and problems, previous experience with same issues or related issues are necessary to determine, if the eight disciplines (8D) is the correct method to be used for solving the issues. You have to ask the questions as below as recognizing the problem:

  • Describe it is new problem in organization / division? If same problem, occur previously at where? If it is new how long from it were being in process. Or it is unknown cause?
  • has it occurred before? where? and what solutions / actions are applied at on it? What is the history of this problem?
  • why it's happened again? is there proper solutions are not applied? what causes behind it is occur again?
  • What problem solving method was used? It was joint method for one or more problem? if it is separately performed what was defects remained in method?
  • To consider warning sign of problems is it really looks very complex to one person cannot resolve the problem?
  • To consider above points, does the problem warrant required an eight Disciplines (8D) method? if yes, why and proceed it.

8D process steps, 8d process flow chart, 8D template, 8D Planning Process, eight discipline process flow chart

The 8D (eight disciplines) process is a team based problem solving methodology, hence the team members must be involved, for identify, action plan and eliminate issues of appropriate problem. A deeper understanding of the problem & its previous records are required to ensure if the 8D solved issues for raise issue.

D1 » Team Establishment

The team establishment is first step of the 8D (Eight Disciplines) approach. This discipline is significant stage as the eight disciplines is based on the substance of team cooperation. Establishment group of peoples called CFT (Cross Functional Team) where must each one from different department is selected by management, with the production process knowledge, product knowledge, and skill in the required technical disciplines to solve the problem and implement corrective actions.

Why team approach is important?

  • CFT (Cross Functional team) build by group of peoples from different department and expertise, so any technical issues can be possible to identify, fix and eliminate problem through it.
  • A Cross functional team can perform more effectively than individuals trying to solve problems.
  • Cross functional team may have adequate capability to introduce proper solution of the problem.
  • A group of people can discuss, focus on negative effects of actions, and can think creatively.
  • Brainstorming as a group can stimulate ideas giving the team a better perspective of the problem.

A Cross functional team for eight disciplines consists of more than two people who are closely concern to the problem. Generally, involves peoples form different departments in the organization coming together to solve a problem. The skills that the team members require for this discipline to ensure the proper solution are:

  • Team member must knowledge of product / part / item (manufacturing processes, assembly etc.)
  • Team member must know the process where the problem has showed itself.
  • Team member must have knowledge of the customer application, technical use and end application requirements.
  • Team member must have skill about decision making, communication skill, and analysis of the processes and data related to manufacturing processes.

How to define team role & responsibility?

Usually, every team must have leader, here the same team leader has an important role to establish procedures and implement actions accordingly. The team leader must prepare a list defining the team structure as eight disciplines concern. the list is also important to establish role & responsibility in 8D processes. Every team member has its own importance in 8D methodology, because every single member comes with different expertise, hence to solve problem multifunction conception and views helpful for appropriate issues.

The role and responsibilities of the individual team member must have allocated by the team and will involve some of the points are: Data collection and analysis, experimentation, decision making processes, modelling managing resources, planning and implementation of action plans, action plan verification and validation, communications etc. The common processes and requirements for the 8D processes needed to contribute to the problem solving effort.

D2 » Problem Description

Problem description is a second stage designate for deep into the problem & getting a more complete information and sophisticated understanding of the problem. The problem description indicates, problem clearly identified and the eight discipline problem solving planner activities to take as much actual information as possible, which organizes the first analysis performed in the problem solving process. You have to describe problem accurately in this stage, clear designed information is foundation to further steps of analysis. The process of this discipline as below:

Describe The Problem Process Flow: Table

A problem description is the results of a practice that uses the is / is not method to magnify the problem statement. The location and nature of the problem have to be described along with its impacts. Another very important analyzed results of information to ensure that the problem involved is recurrent or whether it could occur on particular process or product. See table below help for better understanding:

Describe the problem with Is / Is Not Method: Table

When the describing the problem with 5W + 2H (Who, What, Why, Where, When, how, how many / much) method should be used, where you get the answered thoroughly and systematically by the questions. See picture below for problem analysis worksheet:

8D problem analysis worksheet,8D problem analysis report, 8d problem solving analysis, 8D problem analysis template, 8D problem analysis format, 8D problem analysis checklist

Remember that, you have to specified problem statement been defined, and you have get to know for certain why that is occurring. So Is / Is not analysis must been perform for it. You have to also verify that the similar parts / components displayed the same problem? current process flow identified? does this process flow represent a change. Once you get the answer you can collect the data and analyze it. The information you collected are evaluated for potential root causes, and identify physical evidence of the problem. The problem description been reviewed for completeness with 8D (Eight disciplines) customer and affected parties, and document the activities.

D3 » Containment Action

This is the stage where are taken correct containment action to prevent escalation of the problem, or at the worst delivering non-conforming product to the customer. You have to describe the containment action plan to put in place in order to eliminate the effects of the problem. In this stage, immediate correction action should be carried out in the shortest time possible. The main objective of the implement interim actions / containment actions to isolate issues from parties while a permanent solution is being developed and implemented.

Why containment action required?

Through PDCA Cycle

Plan » Prepare the most effective containment action plan and implementation including verifying the containment action effectiveness and concerned activities such as work instructions, resources and equipment available.

Do » The plan must execute as containment action plan prepared, and ensure that the actions should be clearly communicated at processes and management levels.

Check » It is cross function team responsibility that every containment actions prepared during the planning section must be implemented exactly accordingly and ensure that it may continue to be effective. One of the important activity of this section is to verify and ensure that, the activities must not any other side effects raise as a result of the containment actions.

Act » Take the actions to ensure containment action are effective and sustained with all manufacturing and supporting processes. take the questioners and get the feedback from internal and external customers to implement and make sure is there further containment actions or correction required to rectify other issues.

8D - Containment actions checklist

8D audit checklist,

8D containment action points:

D4 » root cause.

On this stage in Eight disciplines (8D) problem solving process, needs to establish and describing the root causes of a problem is the core of this disciplines, and you will have appraised the team structure and configuration to ensure that all the right skills and experience is available for the upcoming phases or processes in the problem solving effort. Elimination of the problem should be detecting the real cause of the problem. The objective of the explain and verify root causes is to identify all significant causes which could clarify why this problem happened. Eliminate and confirm the root cause by examine each significant cause against the described problem and results of tested data. For define and verify root causes you have to step out as below:

The time line is one of the important and useful tool that manage the records at time line of all events in and around the problem. For Example: A company making steel tubes is experiencing a pits on tubes problem identified. The significant processes / event are recorded on a time line are:

Time line template, 8D time line, timeline analysis,8D timline format, 8D timeline example, timeline example

The time line helps to draw processes and events on time. Though it you can get the answer when actually the problem was first seen at which location. Now you can filter out possible causal theories later in the process by identifying what could possibly have caused the problem and what could not have caused the problem.

There are more three important stages you have to concentrate are: (1) Develop possible causal theories (2) Establish possible root causes (3) Verify possible root causes and define and verify escape point.

You must do deeply thought about the possible causes and documents on separate media. for each of the cause you have to prepare a proper theory that describe how that the possible cause would result in the problem being experienced. You have to do write note of each ideas for develop causal theory for possible root causes. Ask the simple question to each causal points that answered in "IS" / "IS NOT", does this explain the reason why the problem exists on the "IS" and not on the "IS NOT". For separately of the possible root causes, there now requirements to be useful action to validate the possible root cause. this should be carried out in practical terms wherever possible.

D5 » Corrective Action

On the fifth stage of eight disciplines, the cross functional team must determine which corrective actions should be establishing and implement in the short period of time to ensure that the processes and product quality maintained and controlled. The corrective actions must be requirements that satisfy both the parties internal and external customers. Once the root causes are known, team concentrate on the permanent solutions, by systematic approach is needed to use the root cause analysis to establish actions for proper solution. The points that you need to focused on:

In fifth stage of eight disciplines, the team can introduce the additional control in the processes, and ensure that the solution is properly validated that during the implementation in running production it will not raise any unwanted issues, so trail on the small quantities first to verify the solution is effective is necessary. To ensure that the permanent corrective actions need to establish proper process flow for it, see the example process flow:

Verify Corrective Actions Process Flow: Table

Verify the corrective actions, check points.

Somethings that still need to confirm and ensure that corrective action is will properly works at real production. Some points that help you to re-verify the condition such as (1) List and measure all of the indicators related to the program (2) identify which of the indicators are most direct relation to the program (3) Determine intervals to measure the problem (4) identify what cross fictional team prioritized the customer / end user evaluation after the implementation (5) confirm the scientific methods used to verify effectiveness etc.

D6 » Implement and validation corrective actions

On the stage of validation corrective actions, the cross functional team consists of measuring the long term effectiveness of the corrective actions. The purpose of verification of the corrective action is ensure that the actions are implemented are efficient and these are eliminated permanently through effective controls and activities that are embedded in the tasks of the process. Some indicators that you can ensure that the corrective actions are properly works:

The statistical tools such as process capability, histograms, control charts etc. can used to measured and verify the effectiveness of the implemented corrective actions. The cross functional team must have informed to customer about the results achieved, if the process capability submitted with the requirements the customer validates the corrective measures functional. The 8D team confirms whether the capability complies with internal manufacturing requirements, if the process capability complied the team validates the corrective action.


You can use PDCA cycle for implement this stage in manufacturing processes. The implementation of the permanent corrective action conduct to implement to verify the plan for validation of the corrective action. You can plan to withdraw containment (immediate) action as part of implementation of the corrective actions. There is also important that each resources used in processes must be properly planned as well as all documentation, process instructions and communication implementation for corrective actions. Check that the corrective actions have been implemented and integrated into the appropriate tasks and manufacturing processes. Take the actions on any variation from the plan or expected results.

D7 » Prevent recurrence

On this stage, the cross functional team have to determine what action should be taken to prevent recurrence of the problem. You have to amend those operating systems, regular practices, management system as well as procedures to prevent recurrence of this problem and all similar issues. Because preventing recurrence is a one of the important task of problem's solution. The general process flow of the prevent recurrent is:

In this stage of the 8D (eight disciplines) cross functional team analyses whether the corrective action implemented would prevent or improve the quality of similar products and processes. To ensure the prevent recurrent of the problem, you should verify results of their actions and must validate that the results is on target. To verify the actions, you must check out below points:

D8 » Verify and congratulate team

The last stage of the 8D (Eight Disciplines) Is verification of the introduced actions in previous stages are effective. It is highly recommended that verification be made by comparing the measures of the problem with outcomes from upcoming actions of material or outcomes from rejecting of next lot. Once cross functional team has completed implementation all previous stages and ensured that the actions taken in previous stages are works, all team member deserve to be congratulated as well to know that their efforts are appreciated and that the organization knows about their accomplishments.

The cross functional team must have skills and experience to be able to make progress toward as satisfactory problem resolution, and skills and experiences are base reasons for individual selection. Different skills and experiences will support to be drafted in at various stages throughout the process to get the deep understanding about the symptom of problem, root causes and resolution.

The 8D report

From beginning to end of all 8D (Eight Disciplines) processes, the single document called 8D report is essential part once completed, team assume that all things are done and fixed as appropriate actions for appropriate issues. This report serves as a communication tool displaying overall process of the 8D (Eight Disciplines) processes along with actions taken. So, let's see example format of 8D report:

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When the problem has been resolved, the cross functional team should release a final document with stage wise brief description about its experiences. The 8D report give quick and better explanation of how the whole process had handled by team and also 8D serves report as a communication tool displaying overall progress of process.

We can assume that, the successful corrective actions have eliminated repetition of problems and prevention of similar issues. Further, team must ensure that corrective actions will be assessed on their ability to help avoiding future problems. If we do not distinguish between major and minor problems, any issue will hold the delivery of customer and that is the reason we must have to categorize by identify systematic issues to eliminate appropriate problems.


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></center></p><h2>8D Manufacturing Report: Your Guide to Effective Problem Solving</h2><ul><li>zkmsdk-indira</li><li>August 16, 2022</li></ul><p>Manufacturing companies are the backbone of any economy. They produce goods for local or international markets, employ people, and keep their customers happy. </p><p>That’s why manufacturers often use 8D reports to identify and solve problems before they impact their production and business to ensure the quality of produced goods. The methodology was developed by Toyota Motors Manufacturing (TMM) in Japan in the 1960s to help the company achieve better performance. </p><p>For companies who want to compete with other manufacturers around the world, it’s essential to identify and track root causes of non-conformities or problems in a production environment. This helps them achieve a high level of product efficiency and quality, which translates into lower costs and higher profits. </p><p>In this article we cover the ins and outs of 8D reporting, how to use it, and the advantages it may offer to your workforce.</p><p>Download our 8D template as well to make your problem-solving process simpler.</p><h2>The 8D method structure</h2><p>The 8D problem-solving method is a systematic approach to problem solving that emphasizes team participation. This method generally covers:</p><ul><li>Identifying the Problem — You must first identify what is wrong with the process or operation.</li><li>Determining Causes — After identifying a problem, you will have to determine its root cause(s). This may not be easy, but it’s imperative if you want to fix your processes and prevent future problems from arising again.</li><li>Developing Corrective Action — Once you’ve identified the causes of your problems and analyzed all possible solutions, it’s time to develop corrective actions. Create a plan for how each possible solution would work (i.e., “if we use this part instead,” or “if we add these people,” etc.). You’ll also need metrics and checkpoints throughout this process to ensure that everything is working as intended.</li></ul><h2>The 8 disciplines</h2><p>The eight disciplines (8D) follow a logical sequence of eight steps. It’s one of the most common methods used in manufacturing because it’s a structured approach, but it can also be applied to other industries.</p><p>D1: Create a team When using 8D, it is important to have a cross-functional team with individuals from different disciplines to assist you cover more territory. There should be two subgroups for the team members:</p><ul><li>Core members: people who are more data-driven and typical product, process, and data experts.</li><li>Subject Matter Experts (SME): members who may contribute to brainstorming, research, and process observation. Bring in fresh SMEs without hesitation to assist with any step of the process.</li></ul><p>These team members have to be equipped with the knowledge necessary to identify the issue and implement solutions.</p><p>D2: Describe the problem</p><p>The problem description is a narrative that describes the issue in detail and should be understood across the team members. It explains how the issue happened, what impact it had on your business, and why you need to fix it. The problem description should include:</p><ul><li>The underlying causes of your problem (the root cause). Why did this happen?</li><li>What’s the impact of this issue? How much money are you losing because of this? What other problems does it cause within your company?</li><li>How will fixing these underlying causes help solve or prevent future issues related to this one?</li></ul><p>Here are some techniques and tools to identify and formulate the problems:</p><ul><li>5 Why’s formulation</li><li>Affinity Diagram</li><li>Fishbone Diagram</li><li>Is / Is Not method</li></ul><p>D3: Develop a containment plan</p><p>Once you have identified, isolated, and controlled your manufacturing process problems, it’s time to create a plan for containment. You need clear descriptions so that everyone understands what they’re supposed to do in order to solve this issue. Be aware, an Interim Containment Action (ICA) is a temporary plan and should only be replaced with the Permanent Corrective Action (PCA) after completing 8D.</p><p>D4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point</p><p>You might find yourself wandering down several rabbit holes before reaching this point. Be patient and methodical as you work through each step in your investigation process. This process should always be guided by facts rather than assumptions or guesses about what could be going wrong behind closed doors at your company’s factories overseas!</p><p>Review your results, then talk with your team about potential causes of the issue. Each probable root cause is mapped to the issue statement and any associated test results as part of the root cause analysis. Be cautious to rule out all probable reasons; hazy brainstorming and careless analysis might lead you to miss important details.</p><p>Some methods during this step include:</p><ul><li>Comparative Analysis</li><li>Development of Root Cause Theories</li><li>Verification of Root Cause Theories</li><li>Review Process Flow Diagrams</li><li>Determine Escape Points, the closest point in the process where root cause could be found</li></ul><p>In addition to determining the underlying causes, attempt to remember when and why you first discovered the issue in the process. This is called an escape point, and there can be more than one.</p><p>D5: Formulate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCA)</p><p>Corrective actions should be based on the root cause analysis. The first step in formulating corrective actions is to determine the root cause of the failure mode. To do this, you will need to analyze all of your data and identify which potential factors contributed to the problem. Once you have determined what caused the failure, you can then come up with ways of preventing similar failures from occurring in the future.</p><p>For example, if an assembly line stops due to an electrical issue with one machine, it would not make sense to fix just one machine; rather, you should look at all machines on that line and make sure they have proper electrical connections so that they are able to function properly.</p><p>So when something goes wrong, you will have a plan for fixing it before it causes even bigger problems down the road. There are several steps involved in creating an effective corrective action plan:</p><ul><li>Plan out how long it will take before implementing any changes that can help fix whatever issue has arisen;</li><li>Create an actionable plan detailing exactly what needs changing;</li><li>Check in at regular intervals on progress made toward completing this project so that no one gets forgotten along its path until completion (this includes monitoring by both parties involved)</li><li>If necessary take appropriate steps like adding more resources or reallocating existing ones when delays  arise from unforeseen factors such as weather conditions etc .”</li></ul><p>D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action</p><p>Interim measures are temporary solutions to a problem. They can be used to prevent further damage or to allow time for a permanent solution to be implemented. Interim measures can also be used to reduce the impact of the problem until it is solved.</p><p>When you have identified an issue in your business, create an action plan that includes interim measures as well as final goals and expectations. If there is some sort of delay in implementing these interim measures, report back on progress at least monthly so management stays up-to-date on what is happening within your department and company at large.</p><p>Some activities during the 6D step include:</p><ul><li>Creating a project plan</li><li>Share the plan with relevant parties.</li><li>Use metrics to verify progress</li></ul><p>D7: Monitoring of corrective measures</p><p>Monitoring is a key part of the 8D method. Monitoring is a way to check if a corrective action is working, or if it needs to be changed or completed. It’s also a way to check if the root cause has been addressed, and if your company has learned anything new from the incident that could help prevent future errors.</p><p>Your team needs to retain and document the shared knowledge that was gained while identifying, resolving, and preventing this problem. It’s important to review existing documents or procedures and update them accordingly to improve future outcomes.</p><p>Activities you need to keep in mind during this step are:</p><ul><li>Reviewing comparable products and procedures to avoid other problems.</li><li>Creating or updating work instructions and procedures.</li><li>Capturing new industry standards and procedures.</li><li>Confirming the most recent failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA).</li><li>Confirming the revision of control plans.</li></ul><p>D8: Recognize team and individual efforts</p><p>Giving feedback to ensure a good outcome is crucial for any team to flourish. Recognize the efforts and labor that each person has put into what they have brought to the process at this moment.</p><p>The tasks in this stage consist of:</p><ul><li>Archive 8D for later use.</li><li>Keep track of your learnings to enhance your problem-solving techniques.</li><li>Comparisons of the before and after</li><li>Celebration and acknowledgement of the group</li></ul><h2>How to Write an 8D report for your company when you have a product defect or a problem to solve?</h2><p>An 8D report is a tool for managing a problem. It consists of eight columns and four rows:</p><ul><li>The first row, called the title row, lists each column’s name.</li><li>Define the Problem</li><li>Determine Causes</li><li>Develop Solutions</li><li>Verify Solutions</li><li>Control Risks</li><li>Document Your Improvements and Lessons Learned (optional)</li><li>Closeout (optional).</li><li>1a through 7a include action steps related to 1 through 7 above; </li><li>6b includes an optional section that can be used if it becomes necessary to document lessons learned from this process at some later time (e.g., after you implement Solution 3b).</li></ul><h2>8D Report Pros and Cons for manufacturers</h2><p>8d report advantages:.</p><p>More awareness of the root cause (s)</p><p>It improves your quality control processes by identifying the potential causes of nonconformance at each stage of production and prioritizes corrective action steps based on their risk level, priority, impact, probability, etc., thus ensuring that you address the system issues first before they result in incurring costs due to rework/scrap or adverse customer response or regulatory intervention.</p><p>Enhanced quality control strategies and plans.</p><p>8D enables you to reduce lead times by identifying where bottlenecks are occurring within a process so that resource allocation can be adjusted accordingly in order to improve throughput while maintaining quality standards (i.e., having sufficient workers available at all stages). This can also help with preventing employee burnout by covering more shifts so there is less overtime required from employees who might otherwise be tired from working too many hours without breaks when there is high demand for their services during peak times (like Christmas shopping season).</p><p>Avoid future problems</p><p>The 8D report can help your manufacturing company avoid costly mistakes, as you can see exactly where problems may occur and take action to prevent them. </p><p>Team-based approach</p><p>An 8D report gives you an opportunity to check if everything is running smoothly and confirm that everyone understands their tasks and responsibilities. With this information at hand, it’s easier to make improvements based on what works best or needs improvement in different areas of your business. In addition, it’s easy to access historical data on procedures and products.</p><p>Better communication flows</p><p>Finally, It also allows for better communication flows between teams responsible for different processes in the manufacturing process and reduces the amount of time spent investigating issues that aren’t really problems.</p><h2>8D report Cons: </h2><p>Extensive training</p><p>There aren’t many cons to applying 8D problem solving techniques. The most important one is that it will require that people who take part in problem-solving activities obtain the right training and instructions on how 8D operates.</p><p>They will also need to comprehend other closely linked concepts related to 8D issue solving methodologies. Examples of these may be pareto charts , process maps, fishbone diagrams, and more.</p><p>Lack in flexibility</p><p>In addition, an 8D report is not a good tool when there are several problems at once or when an issue in the manufacturing process needs immediate attention. </p><p>Dedicated budget</p><p>An 8D report also has requirements that smaller enterprises with fewer resources can find complicated and costly. For example: you need to have a dedicated budget to provide extensive training so your team has the right knowledge to do the job right. </p><h2>Technology to Assist in 8D Reporting for manufacturers</h2><p>There are a number of software solutions available to help companies implement 8D programs and manage their Supplier Quality Management (SQM) efforts. </p><p>Why should you digitize your 8D processes?</p><p>Automating the 8D report process will ensure that all problems are captured and reported consistently, with no one falling through the cracks.</p><p>It facilitates collaboration across teams and departments. All stakeholders will have access to information on the status of every problem as it progresses through its lifecycle, so they can respond quickly if an issue arises or make suggestions for how best to resolve it. This saves time and allows everyone involved in a particular issue to feel more connected with one another than they otherwise would be able to do without this kind of technology at their disposal.</p><p>8D Solutions</p><p>8D reporting is a powerful tool for monitoring progress and identifying issues in manufacturing. This can help you improve your processes, reduce cost, and increase profits. With the help of technology, you can easily keep track of your 8D reports. Here are some solutions to assist manufacturers with this process:</p><p>A program like SAP or Oracle ERP allows you to integrate 8D reporting into your system. This way, all information is in one place and updated automatically.</p><p>A no-code software tool like Azumuta allows you to integrate 8D reporting into your system. This way, all information is in one place and updated automatically. Easily capture data with your phone or tablet , while offline from the field at any time! Create an 8D report right away and distribute it to your stakeholders and coworkers and track corrective actions to team members through a single app.</p><p>With real-time data, companies can improve communication among team members, improve problem solving skills for individuals on the team (including managers), and develop new solutions for existing issues based on past experience with similar problems at other locations or companies.</p><p>Microsoft Office</p><p>If you don’t want to invest in new software at this time but still want an easy way to manage your project issues and progress, consider using an online database like Excel for managing risks, defects, quality assurance methods, etc. This will allow you to access information from anywhere with a laptop or mobile device. This way is rather tedious though and important information can be lost.</p><h2>Digitize your 8D Processes</h2><p>As you can see, there are many benefits to using a software for 8D reporting. While it may seem like a lot of work initially, once you get the hang of it, it will be easy to maintain and manage your 8D records. The most important thing is to start now! Make sure that your company gets started on an 8D reporting software today so that your team can begin documenting problems as soon as possible!</p><p>See how our platform can help streamline data collection, increase productivity, and increase quality assurance with a free trial of Azumuta.</p><h2>Don't forget to share this post!</h2><p>In this article, you can now connect your manufacturing equipment with azumuta.</p><p>Now Azumuta users can easily connect their manufacturing software to peripheral devices used on the shop floor. These peripherals can be added to digital work instructions and trigger actions directly from the platform.</p><h2>New 3D File Viewer: Upload 3D Images To Your Work Instructions</h2><p>Azumuta’s users can now leverage 3D images across work instructions and other training material. With the 3D File Viewer, operators can have an interactive and always-up-to-date resource for manufacturing and assembly.</p><h2>Maximizing Performance, Minimizing Costs: The Key to Equipment Reliability</h2><p>Are you looking for ways to maximize the reliability of your equipment and minimize downtime? Discover how implementing predictive maintenance techniques can help you maximize the performance of your machines and empower floor workers to take control of maintenance activities.</p><p></p><p>Quality Assurance, Product Development, and Purchasing Strategies in China</p><p><center><img style=

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How To Fill Out an 8D Report and Fix a Problem in a Factory

April 1, 2020 by Renaud Anjoran

How To Fill Out an 8D Report and Fix a Problem in a Factory

Filling out an 8D report means following a highly-structured approach to understanding, addressing, and (in the future) avoiding a problem. It is particularly effective for issues that are important and relatively complex.

It is not the only such approach. For example, Toyota’s ‘business process’ approach is pretty solid. But it is the approach that is slowly becoming the default in many industries, from automotive (it was launched at Ford) to pharmaceutics.

Why is the 8D getting such wide adoption?  

How to fill out an 8D report?

I go through the 8 steps in the video below:

Common issues with 8D reports

Here are common mistakes people make when filling out an 8D.

‘It is just paperwork to make the customer happy’ — I have come across many poorly done 8Ds, and most of them were the result of this process:

In other words, the focus is on filling out a document and ticking a job as ‘done’, not on preventing that same problem from coming back in the future.

‘Done! We have fixed this problem forever’ — the problem is ‘closed’, not ‘fixed’ or ‘solved’. An investigation might have to be re-opened later, for several reasons (another root cause might be at work, the counter-measures might trigger unforeseen reactions…)

‘We addressed 3 root causes at the same time’ — if the problem is relatively simple, this might be OK. In other cases, it is usually better to fill 3 separate 8Ds forms (with the same D1, D2, D3, D4). It may look messier or less traceable from a documentation point of view, but it is the best way to run a solid analysis and follow up.

8D could be a core tool of your continuous improvement efforts

The 8D is not ‘a tool of the quality department’, even though it is often filled out by a quality engineer and reviewed by a quality manager. It can be used for many kinds of relatively complicated problems.

One downside is, the common templates of 8D reporting forms (including the one I showed in my video above) are clearly intended to cover issues that have already occurred. In other words, it is seen and used as a tool for corrective actions, not for preventive actions.

With that (very big) caveat in mind, filling out 8Ds can be a driver of continuous improvement in a factory.

First, it can lead to an update of the process FMEA , the  process control plan , and other  process improvement tools . It should all be handled by the same people, not by different teams.

If done the right way, it pushes people to observe and understand production and testing processes deeply. For example, as I wrote before , good process control in a plating workshop usually starts with a simple analysis such as this:

OUTPUT:  nice appearance, thickness within tolerance, strong adhesion; no excess consumption of chemicals & electrical power; compliance with local regulation INPUTS:  well-cleaned metal parts (in baths with the right amount of the right chemicals, for the right duration and in right sequence) + good bath solution PARAMETERS:  good position of parts (no nesting, take part geometry into account, etc.) and of anodes & cathodes + the right current to be stable for the right duration + treatment of waste before release

Pushing a supplier’s team, and your quality engineer, to draft a simple ‘formula’ of these process controls is an excellent way of opening their eyes on necessary improvement.

And, finally, a good 8D includes followups over time. I see many companies in China that implement countermeasures and then forget about them in the next 3 months…

What about your organization? How does it use the 8D report? Is it a tool for punishing suppliers, or for driving and sustaining improvement?

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Examples Of 8D Problem-Solving

Product defects are not uncommon but an organization must act quickly to eliminate them. This will ensure customers have a…

8D Report Example

Product defects are not uncommon but an organization must act quickly to eliminate them. This will ensure customers have a good experience and the brand doesn’t suffer. In the event of a complaint, an organization can rely on the analysis of an 8D report sample to address errors and improve quality.

The 8D methodology is a structured and systematic approach to problem-solving. From an 8D problem-solving example it’s clear that it not only identifies a problem but also recognizes the weaknesses in the system. Analysis of an 8D report example prevents future occurrences of similar issues.

Examples Of 8D Reports

8d problem-solving report example, 8d problem-solving example.

An 8D problem-solving example shows the strength of this model lies in its methodology, structure and discipline. Organizations can effectively use an 8D report example to analyze defects, its root causes and ways to implement corrective actions.

Let’s have a look at these 8D reports.  

An organization had a problem with holes appearing in its metal cast toy parts. They found that about 3% of their last batch received complaints after operations due to pin-hole defects. An analysis was submitted after the purchase head asked for a full 8D report example . Here’s a look at the 8D report sample that was submitted.

D1 : Names of team members, team leader and manager.

D2 : The problem reported by the customer is described by answering the following questions:

  These questions aim to simplify their approach to problem-solving.

D3 : Once the problem is defined, the defective parts are segregated.

D4 : The root cause of the problem is identified by answering the following questions:

These questions reveal that curing time was not validated and that was the root cause of the problem.  

D5 : A permanent corrective plan is recommended to the quality assurance engineer. It is proposed that product and process should be validated for new drying time.

D6 : Permanent corrective actions are implemented. 10 samples are collected. Product and process characteristics of each sample are checked.

D7 : Preventive measures are recommended to ensure the problem doesn’t recur.

D8 : Team and individual contributions are recognized by the manager. The team leader and team members are rewarded for their efforts.  

An organization received customer complaints about shrinkage on an automobile part. The management demanded a thorough analysis based on an 8D problem-solving example . Here’s the 8D report sample that was submitted:

D1 : A team is created with supply team members, team leader and manager.

D2 : A customer complaint is used to describe the problem. The problem is established by answering the following questions:

These questions allow the team to devise a containment plan.  

D3 : As a containment action the team decides to stop consignments and segregate the good parts immediately.

D4 : To identify the root cause, the team has to answer the questions defining the problem. They are:

The root cause of the problem is revealed to be a faulty pyrometer.

D5 : As a permanent corrective plan, periodic checking of the pyrometer is suggested to the maintenance supervisor.

D6 : Permanent corrective action is implemented and pyrometers are scheduled for weekly checks.

D7 : Periodic checking and proper maintenance of pyrometers are factors to prevent a recurrence.

D8 : The team effort is recognized. The manager and team are praised for solving the problem.

An 8D report example will show that Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is an integral part of the 8D process. It helps managers establish problem statements, identify potential causes, compare theories and confirm the main cause of a problem. You can establish the root cause in an 8D report example by asking the most relevant questions related to the defect.

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Explore Harappa Diaries to learn more about topics such as What Is Problem Solving , Different Problem Solving Methods , Common Barriers To Problem Solving , and What are the essential Problem Solving Skills to classify problems and solve them efficiently.

South Africa’s drinking water quality has dropped because of defective infrastructure and neglect – new report

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Associate Professor and Research Specialist in Water Resource Management, University of South Africa

Disclosure statement

Anja du Plessis does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

University of South Africa provides funding as a partner of The Conversation AFRICA.

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A man collecting water from a large container

A report released by the South African government paints a grim picture of the country’s water resources and water infrastructure as well as the overall quality of its drinking water.

The Blue Drop Watch Report – an interim report because it only assessed a sample of the facilities across the country – focused on the condition of the drinking water infrastructure and treatment processes from a technical standpoint. It also reported on water quality.

The issues of biggest concern that it identified included a collapse of the country’s wastewater treatment works and a sharp rise in the number of local authorities that are failing to meet minimum compliance standards.

The report records continued overall decline in the status of the country’s water supply services. The findings point to a culture of neglect, non-compliance and systemic collapse. The current cholera outbreak in the country should, therefore, come as no surprise. The interim report shows dysfunctional local municipalities and non-compliant wastewater treatment works.

Read more: Cholera in South Africa: a symptom of two decades of continued sewage pollution and neglect

The systemic collapse has been attributed to poor operation, defective infrastructure, the absence of disinfection chemicals, lack of monitoring and an overall lack of operating and chemistry knowledge.

The report shows that the Department of Water and Sanitation issued non-compliance letters to 244 wastewater treatment works in 2022. But only 50% had responded almost a year later.

The report shows a clear and rapid decline in the performance of local government. But only 43 out of 205 local municipalities have asked for assistance from the department. They are able to ask for financial support and assistance to help with capacity building and skills development.

Drinking water quality

Only a test sample of some of the country’s facilities was conducted. Assessments were made of 151 water supply systems – out of the total 1,186 – managed by 140 local municipalities. In addition, 26 water boards and bulk water service providers were assessed. The assessments were done between November 2022 to February 2023.

Most of the treatment plants in the sample were found to be failing to produce acceptable drinking water according to the SANS 241:2015 drinking water standards.

Over 60 systems (41%) of the sample had bad water quality. Another 13 systems (9%) had poor water quality. This meant that it didn’t meet clean water standards because of high levels of contaminants such as wastewater and excrement.

Contaminated water poses acute health risks. It is responsible for water-related illnesses such as cholera.

Only 50% of the assessed treatment plants produced drinking water of a suitable quality not contaminated by sewage or other pathogens or chemicals.

A number of water supply systems were flagged as being in a critical condition, requiring urgent intervention.

The report also noted that 11 of the 140 municipalities that were assessed had no water quality monitoring systems in place or no evidence of any water testing.

Wastewater treatment works

Wastewater treatment works are assessed in accordance with the set Green Drop audit standards . Of the total 850 wastewater treatment works assessed, 334 (39%) received scores below 31% and were placed under regulatory surveillance. Overall, the country’s wastewater treatment works are in a poor to critical state, posing significant risks to public health and to the environment.

South Africa’s Wastewater Treatment Works Preliminary Report Card:

208 are at critical risk (24%) – indicating dysfunctional and unsatisfactory performance, with major corrections required.

250 are at high risk (29%) – indicating partial functionality and unsatisfactory performance, with major corrections required.

Half are in poor to bad condition. This is up from 10% in the 2014/2015 auditing period.

The North West province recorded the highest proportion of wastewater treatment works at critical risk (60%), followed by the Northern Cape (59%) and the Free State (44%). Limpopo has 38% of its plants at critical risk and 48% as high-risk plants, placing the bulk of its treatment facilities in a vulnerable state.

Other major issues reflected in the report were:

Only 25 systems (17%) achieved excellent water quality and 20 systems (13%) good water quality, while 106 systems (70%) failed to achieve chemical compliance. A worrying 83 systems (55%) have bad water quality compliance and 23 systems (15%) have poor water quality compliance.

Under 40% of systems were compliant on microbiological parameters (pathogens and bacteria such as faecal coliform, E. coli and cholera). Just over 10% were partially compliant.

Only 5% of plants were in a state of high compliance. The rest were in a poor or critical condition (64%) or had some degree of compliance (31%).

Water losses within municipal water reticulation systems had increased from 35% in 2015 to 50% in 2023 . This means that 50% of water is lost within the system before reaching consumers.

The findings of the report come as no surprise. Recent cholera outbreaks in Gauteng and Free State provinces have been a warning sign that the country’s water is contaminated.

The current state of affairs was predicted two decades ago by numerous researchers and experts, consistently having highlighted the deterioration of South Africa’s already scarce water resources, dilapidated infrastructure, poor water governance and management, lack of service delivery and the overall threat to the country’s water security, calling for urgent action.

The Department of Water and Sanitation has recently proposed the development of a Water Partnership Office , a new procurement office, in an attempt to address the continued water issues. The initiative is still in its developmental phase, but the government hopes it will facilitate private investment in the water industry.

But government will have to regain the trust of private institutions before they will be willing to invest in water infrastructure projects.

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Senior Lecturer in Endodontics

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Watch CBS News

What is the Air Quality Index, the tool used to tell just how bad your city's air is?

By Li Cohen

June 8, 2023 / 9:17 AM / CBS News

With a thick haze lingering above the heads of millions of Americans as Canada's wildfires continue to rage, there has been a whirlwind of information about the severity of the situation. But when officials and forecasters classify your city's air as "unhealthy" or "hazardous," what does that really mean? 

They're using a federal measurement system called the Air Quality Index. 

What is the Air Quality Index? 

The Air Quality Index is used nationwide to measure the severity of air pollution and categorize the health risks that are involved with various levels of pollution. The index uses six color-coated categories: good (green), moderate (yellow), unhealthy for sensitive groups (orange), unhealthy (red), very unhealthy (purple) and hazardous (maroon). 


The health impacts included in the index are those that people are likely to experience within "a few hours or days" after being exposed to the air, the National Weather Service Says. 

How is air quality measured? 

The National Weather Service says that the Environmental Protection Agency calculates the Air Quality Index – a value between 0 and 500 – based on five "major pollutants." Those pollutants — ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide — are all regulated by the Clean Air Act. Of those, ground-level ozone and airborne particles are considered "the greatest threat to human health." 

What do the numbers mean? 

Each Air Quality Index category, also known as the level of concern, is attached to a certain range of values: 

Essentially, the lower the number, the cleaner the air. The only category where air quality is considered "satisfactory" is the one where the index value is no more than 50, although values between 51 and 100 are still considered "acceptable." After that, the air could pose a risk to at least some people, and that risk only becomes greater as the index value rises. 

Once the air is deemed "very unhealthy," the general public is at risk of experiencing health impacts , which range from a headache and fatigue to much more serious issues such as heart attack or stroke. At "hazardous" levels, the region is experiencing an air quality emergency. Those with chronic respiratory or cardiovascular conditions are more at risk of developing serious health issues as pollution worsens. 

What is the air quality near me? 

Air Quality Index values change constantly throughout the day as weather conditions and weather patterns move through the area. uses the index to provide the latest status for your area. To use the site, enter your zip code and a meter will pop up showing you what the value and color category is for your city, as well as the last time that measurement was updated. 


It also tells you what pollutant is causing issues, who is most at risk for health complications and what activities may be safe to do. In New York City, for example, the Thursday morning reading said the AQI for PM2.5, a kind of particulate matter, is 215, meaning "very unhealthy," and that people who have heart or lung disease, those who are elderly, and children and teens should avoid outdoor physical activity . In these conditions, everyone else should avoid "strenuous" and long outdoor activities. 

View this post on Instagram A post shared by Protecting the Planet - CBS News (@cbsnewsplanet)


Li Cohen is a social media producer and trending content writer for CBS News.

How long will wildfire smoke last? Here’s latest air quality forecast.

New York City and Washington had their worst particle pollution on record Wednesday and Thursday as wildfire smoke poured south from Canada. A few parts of the Mid-Atlantic were still dealing with smoke-filled skies at the start of the day Friday, but conditions were rapidly improving west to east.

Air quality alerts are in effect into Friday from Washington to Connecticut and points east, as well as in Pennsylvania, Upstate New York and parts of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes. Most of the alerts correspond to air qualities in the code orange range — not as bad as the code red or code purple alerts hoisted earlier in the week. The smoke should begin to subside during the evening hours Friday.

A high-resolution weather forecast model known as the HRRR, which simulates atmospheric features, suggests that one last thinning plume of smoke — moderate in some places — will gradually head offshore and dissipate while continuing to affect parts of the Northeast through evening.

Wildfire smoke, air quality and your health

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Below is a forecast based on that model; note that it is not perfect and that actual conditions may vary from its projections.

While patches of poor air quality hung across Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, eastern Virginia and the Delmarva Peninsula, the overall trend was improvement. Computer modeling indicates the smoke is largely dispersing. Washington, which awoke to visibility around 1.25 miles Thursday morning, had 10-mile visibility to start the day Friday.

There could still be some smoke, perhaps thick at times, in central and southern Pennsylvania and Maryland and around Washington in the afternoon, although it is likely that weather models are being overly bullish in their simulations. Otherwise, it should all head offshore Friday night.

The best air quality index apps to check wildfire smoke levels near you

Friday night and beyond

The smoke is being cycled through the Northeast and the Mid-Atlantic by a low-pressure system spinning counterclockwise over northern New England and Nova Scotia.

Beyond Friday afternoon, the low-pressure zone will be drifting to the north and weakening. This should allow smoke plumes to disperse somewhat as the steering flow from the north subsides. By Saturday, a greater westerly component to the wind should reduce the smoke in most areas. However, parts of western New York state may see a renewed filament of smoke drop out of Canada, although confidence is low.

On Sunday, some smoke may drift into Maine, which has largely escaped it so far.

As long as the fires burn in Canada, steering currents in the atmosphere may direct smoke into different parts of the Lower 48 states in the coming weeks. The fire season in Canada is only beginning, so we are likely to see more bouts of smoke through summer.

Canadian wildfire smoke

Latest news: Smoke from Canadian wildfires is spreading south over much of the Midwest, Ohio Valley, Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, bringing dangerous air pollution to the United States. Expect smoky conditions through the end of the week . Follow live updates on the wildfires and the impact on air quality .

Where the wildfire smoke is the worst: Satellite images show smoke covering the Northeast and extending into the Carolinas. Air quality in Philadelphia , D.C. and New York City was particularly poor, and officials urged at-risk residents to wear high-quality masks outdoors. See how bad the wildfire smoke and air quality are in your area.

Air quality and your health: Breathing in wildfire smoke is bad for your health . The EPA uses a color-coded system to measure air quality. Here’s an explanation of what Code Red, Code Purple and more mean . Learn how to protect yourself including which air filters and air purifiers to choose for your home.


Maps: Tracking Air Quality and Smoke From Canada Wildfires

By Madison Dong,  Bea Malsky,  Lazaro Gamio ,  Matthew Bloch ,  Scott Reinhard ,  Leanne Abraham,  Martín González Gómez,  Judson Jones and John-Michael Murphy Updated June 9, 2023

Smoke forecast

Smoke and haze continue to linger over large sections of the United States, as polluted air from wildfires burning in Canada drifts hundreds of miles away, placing millions of residents at potential risk.

The level of particulate matter in the air from smoke this week was unhealthy everywhere from Indiana and Ohio to sections of the Mid-Atlantic region and the south, according to AirNow , a government source for air quality data.

By Friday, many places where air quality reached record-setting hazardous levels had begun to see significant improvement, with some areas beginning to register levels considered to be healthy. (Here’s a guide to understanding air quality readings .)

This is what the air is currently like in the region:

Air quality

Source: AirNow · Data is as of 6 a.m. Eastern

The dense mass of smoke that had choked the Northeast earlier began to disperse by the end of the week, transforming into a widespread haze that covered much of the East Coast as far south as Florida.

See how the smoke traveled through the country this week:

Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Note: Data is as of 3 p.m. Eastern time on June 9 and is based on hourly modeled forecasts of smoke dispersion derived from recent fire and weather conditions.

Much of the smoke that plagued the region can be traced back to a large number of fires burning in Quebec. Some started days ago, if not weeks, according to the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre . But a storm system swirling off the coast of Nova Scotia forced the smoke from these fires south into the United States this week, and then east — toward some of the most densely populated areas in the country.

Many of the Quebec fires were ignited by lightning, but above-normal temperatures and dry conditions have led to outbreaks across Canada since May.

Canada wildfires

Fire season in Quebec and Canada usually starts in May, but the start of this year’s activity has been particularly alarming for Canadian officials. Hundreds of fires are currently burning throughout Canada, according to the country’s interagency fire center .

So far there have been few major U.S. fire outbreaks . But above average wildfire potential is forecast for the Pacific Northwest this summer, as is for most of Canada . So even if the wildfire smoke eases, it is likely to be back sometime this season.

Wildfires and Smoke in North America

Driven by fires in canada, an exceptionally bad spell of pollution driven by smoke has engulfed parts of the united states..

New Yorkers are accustomed to dealing with weather. The arrival of smoke  and orange skies  in New York City was something very different , prompting many to bring their face masks out of retirement .

Canada has been struggling  to fight the extraordinary outbreak  of wildfires  that sent smoke pouring over the border , stretching local resources thin and renewing calls for a national firefighting service .

Did New York’s leaders respond adequately to the crisis? Some experts and elected officials say they should have done more .

The hazy plume has given people in the northeastern United States a sense of what it is like in parts of the world  where a struggle with the quality of their air is more routine .

Though there is no specific research yet attributing the current situation in North America to climate change, the science is unequivocal:  G lobal warming significantly increases the chances of severe wildfires .

More in U.S.


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  1. What is 8D? Eight Disciplines Problem Solving Process

    The eight disciplines (8D) model is a problem solving approach typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals, and is most commonly used by the automotive industry but has also been successfully applied in healthcare, retail, finance, government, and manufacturing. The purpose of the 8D methodology is to identify, correct, and ...

  2. What is 8D? A template for efficient problem-solving

    The eight disciplines (8D) method is a problem-solving approach that identifies, corrects, and eliminates recurring problems. By determining the root causes of a problem, managers can use this method to establish a permanent corrective action and prevent recurring issues.

  3. Eight disciplines problem solving

    Eight Disciplines Methodology ( 8D) is a method or model developed at Ford Motor Company used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals. Focused on product and process improvement, its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems. [1]

  4. What is 8D Report? Meaning, how to fill and a template

    The meaning The 8D Report or 8d corrective action report is a problem-solving approach for product and process improvement. Furthermore, 8D Methodology is used to implement structural long-term solutions to prevent recurring problems. The 8D Report was first used in the automotive industry.

  5. 8D

    When it's clear that your product is defective or isn't satisfying your customers, an 8D is an excellent first step to improving Quality and Reliability. Ford Motor Company developed this problem solving methodology, then known as Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS), in the 1980s.

  6. 8D-Report

    Ein 8D-Report ist ein Dokument, das im Rahmen des Qualitätsmanagements bei einer Reklamation zwischen Lieferant und Kunde (aber auch intern) ausgetauscht wird. 8D steht dabei für die acht obligatorischen Disziplinen (Prozessschritte), die bei der Abarbeitung einer Reklamation erforderlich sind, um das zu Grunde liegende Problem zu überwinden.

  7. 8D Report Templates: Free PDF Download

    An 8D Report is a comprehensive method that aims to eliminate problems by identifying and attacking their root cause (s). 8D Reports can lead to preventive measures that resolve persistent issues by utilizing a combination of expertise, data analysis, management tools, and data validation. 8D Format: The 8 Disciplines

  8. What is 8D ? 8D CAPA Report

    8D CAPA Report is mainly demanded by all OEMs and IATF 16949 certified companies from their suppliers ( at least ISO 9001 certified) to solve customer complaints or quality-related issues. Table of Contents 8D Approach | 8D Problem-Solving Steps 8D Step - D1: Establish the Team D2: Defining the problem D3: Containment or Interim Actions

  9. 8D Problem Solving Report

    8D is a problem solving method used globally, mainly in manufacturing industry by Quality Engineers and Operations managers. The purpose of 8D problem solving method is to identify, correct and prevent problems affecting customers and operational efficiency. It is a problem solving approach similar to PDCA cycle (Plan - Do - Check - Act).

  10. 8D Report

    Features. You can create an 8D report directly from the 8D problem analysis or from the underlying customer complaint. In both cases, you must select the respective print form for 8D reports in the dialog box for printing or e-mailing. If you create the 8D report from the customer complaint, the data is taken partly from the original customer ...

  11. 8D Customer Complaint Resolution Report

    Overview. The 8D Customer Complaint Resolution Report provides a structure and a framework for completing an 8D analysis, the eight-step analytic approach for addressing product and process problems that can cause customer complaints. This tool keeps key stakeholders, including management and customers, informed and updated on the status of a ...

  12. What is Complaint management / 8D-Report

    An 8D report is a document that is exchanged between supplier and customer (but also internally) as part of quality management in the event of a complaint. An 8D report is thus part of the complaint management and serves the quality assurance at the supplier. 8D stands for the eight mandatory disciplines or process steps that are required in ...

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    The 8D (Eight Discipline) model is correctly identified the cause of the problem, and applied such actions to prevent recurrence of the problem. 8D is perform as preventive and corrective action system by implement step by step process to identify potential and actual problems in processes. Benefits of 8D (Eight Disciplines)

  14. 8D Manufacturing Report: Your Guide to Effective Problem Solving

    The 8D problem-solving method is a systematic approach to problem solving that emphasizes team participation. This method generally covers: Identifying the Problem — You must first identify what is wrong with the process or operation. Determining Causes — After identifying a problem, you will have to determine its root cause (s).

  15. PDF Automated Quality Evaluation of 8D Reports in Context of ...

    the quality of all completed 8D reports espe-cially concerning content and that gives feed-back on which areas of the report and which processes can be improved. On this basis, well-directed measures and trainings could be established to improve the quality of 8D pro-cessing sustainably. 5 AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF 8D REPORTS

  16. How To Fill Out an 8D Report and Fix a Problem in a Factory

    Filling out an 8D report means following a highly-structured approach to understanding, addressing, and (in the future) avoiding a problem. It is particularly effective for issues that are important and relatively complex. It is not the only such approach. For example, Toyota's 'business process' approach is pretty solid.

  17. Examples Of 8D Problem-Solving

    8D Problem-Solving Example. An organization received customer complaints about shrinkage on an automobile part. The management demanded a thorough analysis based on an 8D problem-solving example. Here's the 8D report sample that was submitted: D1: A team is created with supply team members, team leader and manager.

  18. Quality Management Knowledge: 8D Report

    The 8D report is a way to process complaints regarding faulty products within the supply chain and is part of quality management. Created by the supplier, it is transferred to the customer and documents the approach taken for processing a complaint. It thus serves to assure supplier quality, both in the present and in the future.

  19. Utilising the '8D Approach' in business

    Knowledge & Research Utilising the '8D Approach' in business Published: 15 Dec 2020 Stephanie Herring, Quality Manager at Wales Fertility Institute, UK, explains why the 8D approach should be applied when investigating non-conformances.

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